* joint first author # joint corresponding author

Maria Luisa Romero Romero#, Jonas Poehls, Anastasiia Kirilenko, Doris Richter, Tobias Jumel, Anna Shevchenko, Agnes Toth-Petroczy#
Environment modulates protein heterogeneity through transcriptional and translational stop codon readthrough.
Nat Commun, 15(1) Art. No. 4446 (2024)
Open Access DOI
Stop codon readthrough events give rise to longer proteins, which may alter the protein's function, thereby generating short-lasting phenotypic variability from a single gene. In order to systematically assess the frequency and origin of stop codon readthrough events, we designed a library of reporters. We introduced premature stop codons into mScarlet, which enabled high-throughput quantification of protein synthesis termination errors in E. coli using fluorescent microscopy. We found that under stress conditions, stop codon readthrough may occur at rates as high as 80%, depending on the nucleotide context, suggesting that evolution frequently samples stop codon readthrough events. The analysis of selected reporters by mass spectrometry and RNA-seq showed that not only translation but also transcription errors contribute to stop codon readthrough. The RNA polymerase was more likely to misincorporate a nucleotide at premature stop codons. Proteome-wide detection of stop codon readthrough by mass spectrometry revealed that temperature regulated the expression of cryptic sequences generated by stop codon readthrough in E. coli. Overall, our findings suggest that the environment affects the accuracy of protein production, which increases protein heterogeneity when the organisms need to adapt to new conditions.

Mukesh Kumar, Canan Has, Khanh Lam-Kamath, Sophie Ayciriex, Deepshe Dewett, Mina Bashir, Clara Poupault, Kai Schuhmann, Henrik Thomas, Oskar Knittelfelder, Bharath Kumar Raghuraman, R Ahrends, Jens Rister#, Andrej Shevchenko#
Eye proteome of Drosophila melanogaster.
Proteomics, 24(10) Art. No. e2300330 (2024)
Open Access DOI
Drosophila melanogaster is a popular model organism to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the structure and function of the eye as well as the causes of retinopathies, aging, light-induced damage, or dietary deficiencies. Large-scale screens have isolated genes whose mutation causes morphological and functional ocular defects, which led to the discovery of key components of the phototransduction cascade. However, the proteome of the Drosophila eye is poorly characterized. Here, we used GeLC-MS/MS to quantify 3516 proteins, including the absolute (molar) quantities of 43 proteins in the eye of adult male Drosophila reared on standard laboratory food. This work provides a generic and expandable resource for further genetic, pharmacological, and dietary studies.

Mukesh Kumar, Canan Has, Khanh Lam-Kamath, Sophie Ayciriex, Deepshe Dewett, Mina Bashir, Clara Poupault, Kai Schuhmann, Henrik Thomas, Oskar Knittelfelder, Bharath Kumar Raghuraman, R Ahrends, Jens Rister#, Andrej Shevchenko#
Lipidome Unsaturation Affects the Morphology and Proteome of the Drosophila Eye.
J Proteome Res, 23(4) 1188-1199 (2024)
Open Access DOI
Organisms respond to dietary and environmental challenges by altering the molecular composition of their glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids (GPLs), which may favorably adjust the physicochemical properties of lipid membranes. However, how lipidome changes affect the membrane proteome and, eventually, the physiology of specific organs is an open question. We addressed this issue in Drosophila melanogaster, which is not able to synthesize sterols and polyunsaturated fatty acids but can acquire them from food. We developed a series of semisynthetic foods to manipulate the length and unsaturation of fatty acid moieties in GPLs and singled out proteins whose abundance is specifically affected by membrane lipid unsaturation in the Drosophila eye. Unexpectedly, we identified a group of proteins that have muscle-related functions and increased their abundances under unsaturated eye lipidome conditions. In contrast, the abundance of two stress response proteins, Turandot A and Smg5, is decreased by lipid unsaturation. Our findings could guide the genetic dissection of homeostatic mechanisms that maintain visual function when the eye is exposed to environmental and dietary challenges.

Joshua Mills, L Johanna Gebhard, Florence Schubotz, Anna Shevchenko, Daan R Speth, Yan Liao, Iain G Duggin, Anita Marchfelder, Susanne Erdmann
Extracellular vesicle formation in Euryarchaeota is driven by a small GTPase.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A., 121(10) Art. No. e2311321121 (2024)
Open Access DOI
Since their discovery, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have changed our view on how organisms interact with their extracellular world. EVs are able to traffic a diverse array of molecules across different species and even domains, facilitating numerous functions. In this study, we investigate EV production in Euryarchaeota, using the model organism Haloferax volcanii. We uncover that EVs enclose RNA, with specific transcripts preferentially enriched, including those with regulatory potential, and conclude that EVs can act as an RNA communication system between haloarchaea. We demonstrate the key role of an EV-associated small GTPase for EV formation in H. volcanii that is also present across other diverse evolutionary branches of Archaea. We propose the name, ArvA, for the identified family of archaeal vesiculating GTPases. Additionally, we show that two genes in the same operon with arvA (arvB and arvC) are also involved in EV formation. Both, arvB and arvC, are closely associated with arvA in the majority of other archaea encoding ArvA. Our work demonstrates that small GTPases involved in membrane deformation and vesiculation, ubiquitous in Eukaryotes, are also present in Archaea and are widely distributed across diverse archaeal phyla.

Thorsten Meyer, Oskar Knittelfelder, Martin Smolnig, Patrick Rockenfeller
Quantifying yeast lipidomics by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and comparison to mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics.
Microb Cell, 11(1) 57-68 (2024)
Open Access DOI
Lipidomic analysis in diverse biological settings has become a frequent tool to increase our understanding of the processes of life. Cellular lipids play important roles not only as being the main components of cellular membranes, but also in the regulation of cell homeostasis as lipid signaling molecules. Yeast has been harnessed for biomedical research based on its good conservation of genetics and fundamental cell organisation principles and molecular pathways. Further application in so-called humanised yeast models have been developed which take advantage of yeast as providing the basics of a living cell with full control over heterologous expression. Here we present evidence that high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) represents an effective alternative to replace cost intensive mass spectrometry-based lipidomic analyses. We provide statistical comparison of identical samples by both methods, which support the use of HPTLC for quantitative analysis of the main yeast lipid classes.

Tobias Jumel#, Andrej Shevchenko#
Multispecies Benchmark Analysis for LC-MS/MS Validation and Performance Evaluation in Bottom-Up Proteomics.
J Proteome Res, 23(2) 684-691 (2024)
Open Access DOI
We present an instrument-independent benchmark procedure and software (LFQ_bout) for the validation and comparative evaluation of the performance of LC-MS/MS and data processing workflows in bottom-up proteomics. The procedure enables a back-to-back comparison of common and emerging workflows, e.g., diaPASEF or ScanningSWATH, and evaluates the impact of arbitrary and inadequately documented settings or black-box data processing algorithms. It enhances the overall performance and quantification accuracy by recognizing and reporting common quantification errors.

Fernando Moreto, Jéssica Leite Garcia, Ana Lúcia Dos Anjos Ferreira, Silvia Radrezza, Mariane Róvero Costa, Guilherme Ribeiro Romualdo, Nubia Alves Grandini, Giancarlo Aldini, Camila Renata Correa, Alfonsina D'Amato
Quantitative proteomics study of carnosine effect in an animal model of Western diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 38(2) Art. No. e23644 (2024)
The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is closely related to westernized dietary (WD) patterns, displays a rising epidemiological and economic burden. Since there is no pharmacological therapy approved for this disease, mechanistic studies are warranted. In this work, we investigated the action of carnosine (CAR), a natural dipeptide with several protection roles against oxidative stress in the liver of NAFLD rats. NAFLD was induced by WD-rich sugars and fat, verifying the histological evidence of steatosis. As intraperitoneal administration of CAR reversed liver steatosis, the protein profiles of NAFLD liver and CAR NAFLD liver were evaluated by label-free proteomics approach. A total of 2531 proteins were identified and the 230 and 276 were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, by CAR treatment of NAFLD rats and involved in fundamental pathways such as oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. Perilipin 2 and apolipoprotein E, components of the plasma membrane of vesicle, resulted in highly downregulated in the CAR-treated NAFLD liver. The advanced bioanalytical approach demonstrated the efficacy of CAR in overcoming the main symptoms of NAFLD, ameliorating the steatosis in the liver.

Kathrin Schmeisser#, Damla Kaptan, Bharath Kumar Raghuraman, Andrej Shevchenko, Jonathan Rodenfels, Sider Penkov, Teymuras V. Kurzchalia#
Mobilization of cholesterol induces the transition from quiescence to growth in Caenorhabditis elegans through steroid hormone and mTOR signaling.
Commun Biol, 7(1) Art. No. 121 (2024)
Open Access DOI
Recovery from the quiescent developmental stage called dauer is an essential process in C. elegans and provides an excellent model to understand how metabolic transitions contribute to developmental plasticity. Here we show that cholesterol bound to the small secreted proteins SCL-12 or SCL-13 is sequestered in the gut lumen during the dauer state. Upon recovery from dauer, bound cholesterol undergoes endocytosis into lysosomes of intestinal cells, where SCL-12 and SCL-13 are degraded and cholesterol is released. Free cholesterol activates mTORC1 and is used for the production of dafachronic acids. This leads to promotion of protein synthesis and growth, and a metabolic switch at the transcriptional level. Thus, mobilization of sequestered cholesterol stores is the key event for transition from quiescence to growth, and cholesterol is the major signaling molecule in this process.

Jack Davis, Thorsten Meyer, Martin Smolnig, Daniel G J Smethurst, Lisa Neuhaus, Jonas Heyden, Filomena Broeskamp, Elizabeth S M Edrich, Oskar Knittelfelder, Dagmar Kolb, Tobias von der Haar, Campbell W Gourlay#, Patrick Rockenfeller#
A dynamic actin cytoskeleton is required to prevent constitutive VDAC-dependent MAPK signalling and aberrant lipid homeostasis.
iScience, 26(9) Art. No. 107539 (2023)
Open Access DOI
The dynamic nature of the actin cytoskeleton is required to coordinate many cellular processes, and a loss of its plasticity has been linked to accelerated cell aging and attenuation of adaptive response mechanisms. Cofilin is an actin-binding protein that controls actin dynamics and has been linked to mitochondrial signaling pathways that control drug resistance and cell death. Here we show that cofilin-driven chronic depolarization of the actin cytoskeleton activates cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling and disrupts lipid homeostasis in a voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)-dependent manner. Expression of the cof1-5 mutation, which reduces the dynamic nature of actin, triggers loss of cell wall integrity, vacuole fragmentation, disruption of lipid homeostasis, lipid droplet (LD) accumulation, and the promotion of cell death. The integrity of the actin cytoskeleton is therefore essential to maintain the fidelity of MAPK signaling, lipid homeostasis, and cell health in S. cerevisiae.

Nikolai P Skiba#, Tylor R Lewis, William C. Spencer, Carson M Castillo, Andrej Shevchenko, Vadim Y Arshavsky#
Absolute Quantification of Photoreceptor Outer Segment Proteins.
J Proteome Res, 22(8) 2703-2713 (2023)
Photoreceptor cells generate neuronal signals in response to capturing light. This process, called phototransduction, takes place in a highly specialized outer segment organelle. There are significant discrepancies in the reported amounts of many proteins supporting this process, particularly those of low abundance, which limits our understanding of their molecular organization and function. In this study, we used quantitative mass spectrometry to simultaneously determine the abundances of 20 key structural and functional proteins residing in mouse rod outer segments. We computed the absolute number of molecules of each protein residing within an individual outer segment and the molar ratio among all 20 proteins. The molar ratios of proteins comprising three well-characterized constitutive complexes in outer segments differed from the established subunit stoichiometries of these complexes by less than 7%, highlighting the exceptional precision of our quantification. Overall, this study resolves multiple existing discrepancies regarding the outer segment abundances of these proteins, thereby advancing our understanding of how the phototransduction pathway functions as a single, well-coordinated molecular ensemble.

Zuyao Ni, Michele Wölk, Geoff Jukes, Karla Mendivelso Espinosa, R Ahrends, Lucila Aimo, Jorge Alvarez-Jarreta, Simon Andrews, Robert Andrews, Alan Bridge, Geremy C Clair, Matthew J Conroy, Eoin Fahy, Caroline Gaud, Laura Goracci, Jürgen Hartler, Nils Hoffmann, Dominik Kopczyinki, Ansgar Korf, Andrea F Lopez-Clavijo, Adnan Malik, Jacobo Miranda Ackerman, Martijn R Molenaar, Claire O'Donovan, Tomás Pluskal, Andrej Shevchenko, Denise Slenter, Gary Siuzdak, Martina Kutmon, Hiroshi Tsugawa, Egon L Willighagen, Jianguo Xia, Valerie B O'Donnell#, Maria Fedorova#
Guiding the choice of informatics software and tools for lipidomics research applications.
Nat Methods, 20(2) 193-204 (2023)
Progress in mass spectrometry lipidomics has led to a rapid proliferation of studies across biology and biomedicine. These generate extremely large raw datasets requiring sophisticated solutions to support automated data processing. To address this, numerous software tools have been developed and tailored for specific tasks. However, for researchers, deciding which approach best suits their application relies on ad hoc testing, which is inefficient and time consuming. Here we first review the data processing pipeline, summarizing the scope of available tools. Next, to support researchers, LIPID MAPS provides an interactive online portal listing open-access tools with a graphical user interface. This guides users towards appropriate solutions within major areas in data processing, including (1) lipid-oriented databases, (2) mass spectrometry data repositories, (3) analysis of targeted lipidomics datasets, (4) lipid identification and (5) quantification from untargeted lipidomics datasets, (6) statistical analysis and visualization, and (7) data integration solutions. Detailed descriptions of functions and requirements are provided to guide customized data analysis workflows.

Laura Christin Trautenberg, Marko Brankatschk, Andrej Shevchenko, Stuart Wigby, Klaus Reinhardt
Ecological lipidology.
Elife, 11 Art. No. e79288 (2022)
Open Access DOI
Dietary lipids (DLs), particularly sterols and fatty acids, are precursors for endogenous lipids that, unusually for macronutrients, shape cellular and organismal function long after ingestion. These functions - cell membrane structure, intracellular signalling, and hormonal activity - vary with the identity of DLs, and scale up to influence health, survival, and reproductive fitness, thereby affecting evolutionary change. Our Ecological Lipidology approach integrates biochemical mechanisms and molecular cell biology into evolution and nutritional ecology. It exposes our need to understand environmental impacts on lipidomes, the lipid specificity of cell functions, and predicts the evolution of lipid-based diet choices. Broad interdisciplinary implications of Ecological Lipidology include food web alterations, species responses to environmental change, as well as sex differences and lifestyle impacts on human nutrition, and opportunities for DL-based therapies.

Jeffrey G McDonald✳︎, Christer S. Ejsing✳︎, Dominik Kopczynski✳︎, Michal Holčapek✳︎, Junken Aoki, Makoto Arita, Masanori Arita, Erin S Baker, Justine Bertrand-Michel, John A Bowden, Britta Brügger, Shane R Ellis, Maria Fedorova, William J Griffiths, Xianlin Han, Jürgen Hartler, Nils Hoffmann, Jeremy P Koelmel, Harald C Köfeler, Todd W Mitchell, Valerie B O'Donnell, Daisuke Saigusa, Dominik Schwudke, Andrej Shevchenko, Candice Z Ulmer, Markus R Wenk, Michael Witting, Denise Wolrab, Yu Xia#, R Ahrends#, Gerhard Liebisch#, Kim Ekroos
Introducing the Lipidomics Minimal Reporting Checklist.
Nat Metab, 4(9) 1086-1088 (2022)

Mukesh Kumar, Canan Has, Khanh Lam-Kamath, Sophie Ayciriex, Deepshe Dewett, Mina Bashir, Clara Poupault, Kai Schuhmann, Oskar Knittelfelder, Bharath Kumar Raghuraman, R Ahrends, Jens Rister#, Andrej Shevchenko#
Vitamin A Deficiency Alters the Phototransduction Machinery and Distinct Non-Vision-Specific Pathways in the Drosophila Eye Proteome.
Biomolecules, 12(8) Art. No. 1083 (2022)
Open Access DOI
The requirement of vitamin A for the synthesis of the visual chromophore and the light-sensing pigments has been studied in vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms. To identify the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate the ocular response to vitamin A deprivation, we took advantage of the fact that Drosophila melanogaster predominantly requires vitamin A for vision, but not for development or survival. We analyzed the impacts of vitamin A deficiency on the morphology, the lipidome, and the proteome of the Drosophila eye. We found that chronic vitamin A deprivation damaged the light-sensing compartments and caused a dramatic loss of visual pigments, but also decreased the molar abundance of most phototransduction proteins that amplify and transduce the visual signal. Unexpectedly, vitamin A deficiency also decreased the abundances of specific subunits of mitochondrial TCA cycle and respiratory chain components but increased the levels of cuticle- and lens-related proteins. In contrast, we found no apparent effects of vitamin A deficiency on the ocular lipidome. In summary, chronic vitamin A deficiency decreases the levels of most components of the visual signaling pathway, but also affects molecular pathways that are not vision-specific and whose mechanistic connection to vitamin A remains to be elucidated.

Maren Rudolph✳︎, Yuting Wang✳︎, Theresa Simolka, Emilie Huc-Claustre, Lingyun Dai, Gijsbert Grotenbreg, Gurdyal Besra, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, Sebastian Zeissig
Sortase A-Cleavable CD1d Identifies Sphingomyelins as Major Class of CD1d-Associated Lipids.
Front Immunol, 13 Art. No. 897873 (2022)
Open Access DOI
CD1d is an atypical MHC class I molecule which binds endogenous and exogenous lipids and can activate natural killer T (NKT) cells through the presentation of lipid antigens. CD1d surveys different cellular compartments including the secretory and the endolysosomal pathway and broadly binds lipids through its two hydrophobic pockets. Purification of the transmembrane protein CD1d for the analysis of bound lipids is technically challenging as the use of detergents releases CD1d-bound lipids. To address these challenges, we have developed a novel approach based on Sortase A-dependent enzymatic release of CD1d at the cell surface of live mammalian cells, which allows for single step release and affinity tagging of CD1d for shotgun lipidomics. Using this system, we demonstrate that CD1d carrying the Sortase A recognition motif shows unimpaired subcellular trafficking through the secretory and endolysosomal pathway and is able to load lipids in these compartments and present them to NKT cells. Comprehensive shotgun lipidomics demonstrated that the spectrum and abundance of CD1d-associated lipids is not representative of the total cellular lipidome but rather characterized by preferential binding to long chain sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids. As such, sphingomyelin species recently identified as critical negative regulators of NKT cell activation, represented the vast majority of endogenous CD1d-associated lipids. Moreover, we observed that inhibition of endolysosomal trafficking of CD1d surprisingly did not affect the spectrum of CD1d-bound lipids, suggesting that the majority of endogenous CD1d-associated lipids load onto CD1d in the secretory rather than the endolysosomal pathway. In conclusion, we present a novel system for the analysis of CD1d-bound lipids in mammalian cells and provide new insight into the spectrum of CD1d-associated lipids, with important functional implications for NKT cell activation.

Anubha Seth, Marius Landau, Andrej Shevchenko, Sofia Traikov, Anita Schultz, Sherif Elsabbagh, Joachim E Schultz
Distinct glycerophospholipids potentiate Gsα-activated adenylyl cyclase activity.
Cell Signal, 97 Art. No. 110396 (2022)
Open Access DOI
Nine mammalian adenylyl cyclases (AC) are pseudoheterodimers with two hexahelical membrane domains, which are isoform-specifically conserved. Previously we proposed that these membrane domains are orphan receptors (https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13098; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2020.109538). Lipids extracted from fetal bovine serum at pH 1 inhibited several mAC activities. Guided by a lipidomic analysis we tested glycerophospholipids as potential ligands. Contrary to expectations we surprisingly discovered that 1-stearoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-phosphatidic acid (SDPA) potentiated Gsα-activated activity of human AC isoform 3 seven-fold. The specificity of fatty acyl esters at glycerol positions 1 and 2 was rather stringent. 1-Stearoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-phosphatidylserine and 1-stearoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine significantly potentiated several Gsα-activated mAC isoforms to different extents. SDPA appears not interact with forskolin activation of AC isoform 3. SDPA enhanced Gsα-activated AC activities in membranes from mouse brain cortex. The action of SDPA was reversible. Unexpectedly, SDPA did not affect cAMP generation in HEK293 cells stimulated by isoproterenol, PGE2 and adenosine, virtually excluding a role as an extracellular ligand and, instead, suggesting an intracellular role. In summary, we discovered a new dimension of intracellular AC regulation by chemically defined glycerophospholipids.

Eleonora Patsenker, Veera Raghavan Thangapandi, Oskar Knittelfelder, Alessandra Palladini, Michaela Hefti, Jane Beil-Wagner, Gerhard Rogler, Thorsten Buch, Andrej Shevchenko, Jochen Hampe, Felix Stickel
The PNPLA3 variant I148M reveals protective effects toward hepatocellular carcinoma in mice via restoration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fats.
J Nutr Biochem, 108 Art. No. 109081 (2022)
Alcohol consumption and high caloric diet are leading causes of progressive fatty liver disease. Genetic variant rs738409 in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3 rs738409 C>G) has been repeatedly described as one of the major risk loci for alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans, however, the mechanism behind this association is incompletely understood. We generated mice carrying the rs738409 variant (PNPLA3 I148M) in order to detect genotype-phenotype relationships in mice upon chow and alcohol-high fat/high sugar diet (EtOH/WD). We could clearly demonstrate that the presence of rs738409 per se is sufficient to induce spontaneous development of steatosis after 1 year in mice on a chow diet, whereas in the setting of unhealthy diet feeding, PNPLA3 I148M did not affect hepatic inflammation or fibrosis, but induced a striking lipid remodeling, microvesicular steatosis and protected from HCC formation. Using shot gun lipidomics, we detected a striking restoration of reduced long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA)-containing TGs, docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n3) and omega-3-derived eicosanoids (5-HEPE, 20-HEPE, 19,20-EDP, 21-HDHA) in PNPLA3 I148M mice upon EtOH/WD. At the molecular level, PNPLA3 I148M modulated enzymes for fatty acid and TG transport and metabolism. These findings suggest (dietary) lipids as an important and independent driver of hepatic tumorigenesis. Genetic variant in PNPLA3 exerted protective effects in mice, conflicting with findings in humans. Species-related differences in physiology and metabolism should be taken into account when modeling unhealthy human lifestyle, as genetic mouse models may not always allow for translation of insight gained in humans.

Ignacy Rzagalinski, Aliona Bogdanova, Bharath Kumar Raghuraman, Eric R Geertsma, Lena Hersemann, Tjalf Ziemssen, Andrej Shevchenko
FastCAT Accelerates Absolute Quantification of Proteins Using Multiple Short Nonpurified Chimeric Standards.
J Proteome Res, 21(6) 1408-1417 (2022)
Open Access DOI
Absolute (molar) quantification of clinically relevant proteins determines their reference values in liquid and solid biopsies. The FastCAT (for Fast-track QconCAT) method employs multiple short (<50 kDa), stable-isotope labeled chimeric proteins (CPs) composed of concatenated quantotypic (Q)-peptides representing the quantified proteins. Each CP also comprises scrambled sequences of reference (R)-peptides that relate its abundance to a single protein standard (bovine serum albumin, BSA). FastCAT not only alleviates the need to purify CP or use sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) but also improves the accuracy, precision, and dynamic range of the absolute quantification by grouping Q-peptides according to the expected abundance of the target proteins. We benchmarked FastCAT against the reference method of MS Western and tested it in the direct molar quantification of neurological markers in human cerebrospinal fluid at the low ng/mL level.

Alastair W Skeffington#, Marc Gentzel, Andre Ohara, Alexander Milentyev, Christoph Heintze, Lorenz Böttcher, Stefan Görlich, Andrej Shevchenko, Nicole Poulsen, Nils Kröger#
Shedding light on silica biomineralization by comparative analysis of the silica-associated proteomes from three diatom species.
Plant J, 110(6) 1700-1716 (2022)
Morphogenesis of the intricate patterns of diatom silica cell walls is a protein-guided process, yet to date only very few such silica biomineralization proteins have been identified. Therefore, it is currently unknown whether all diatoms share conserved proteins of a basal silica forming machinery, and whether unique proteins are responsible for the morphogenesis of species-specific silica patterns. To answer these questions, we extracted proteins from the silica of three diatom species (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Thalassiosira oceanica, and Cyclotella cryptica) by complete demineralization of the cell walls. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of the extracts identified 92 proteins that we name 'soluble silicome proteins' (SSPs). Surprisingly, no SSPs are common to all three species, and most SSPs showed very low similarity to one another in sequence alignments. In-depth bioinformatics analyses revealed that SSPs could be grouped into distinct classes based on short unconventional sequence motifs whose functions are yet unknown. The results from the in vivo localization of selected SSPs indicates that proteins, which lack sequence homology but share unconventional sequence motifs may exert similar functions in the morphogenesis of the diatom silica cell wall.

Fritzi Ott✳︎, Christiane Körner✳︎, Kim Werner, Martin Gericke, Ines Liebscher, Donald Lobsien, Silvia Radrezza, Andrej Shevchenko, Ute Hofmann, Jürgen Kratzsch, Rolf Gebhardt, Thomas Berg, Madlen Matz-Soja
Hepatic Hedgehog Signaling Participates in the Crosstalk between Liver and Adipose Tissue in Mice by Regulating FGF21.
Cells, 11(10) Art. No. 1680 (2022)
Open Access DOI
The Hedgehog signaling pathway regulates many processes during embryogenesis and the homeostasis of adult organs. Recent data suggest that central metabolic processes and signaling cascades in the liver are controlled by the Hedgehog pathway and that changes in hepatic Hedgehog activity also affect peripheral tissues, such as the reproductive organs in females. Here, we show that hepatocyte-specific deletion of the Hedgehog pathway is associated with the dramatic expansion of adipose tissue in mice, the overall phenotype of which does not correspond to the classical outcome of insulin resistance-associated diabetes type 2 obesity. Rather, we show that alterations in the Hedgehog signaling pathway in the liver lead to a metabolic phenotype that is resembling metabolically healthy obesity. Mechanistically, we identified an indirect influence on the hepatic secretion of the fibroblast growth factor 21, which is regulated by a series of signaling cascades that are directly transcriptionally linked to the activity of the Hedgehog transcription factor GLI1. The results of this study impressively show that the metabolic balance of the entire organism is maintained via the activity of morphogenic signaling pathways, such as the Hedgehog cascade. Obviously, several pathways are orchestrated to facilitate liver metabolic status to peripheral organs, such as adipose tissue.

Olga Vvedenskaya, Michal Holčapek, Michael Vogeser, Kim Ekroos, Peter J Meikle, Anne K Bendt
Clinical lipidomics - A community-driven roadmap to translate research into clinical applications.
J Mass Spectrom Adv Clin Lab, 24 1-4 (2022)
Open Access DOI
Lipid metabolites, beyond triglycerides and cholesterol, have been shown to have vast potential for applications in clinical applications, with substantial societal and economical value. To successfully evolve from the current research-grade methods to assays suitable for routine clinical applications, a harmonization - if not standardization - of these mass spectrometry-based workflows is necessary. Input on clinical needs and technological capabilities must be obtained from all relevant stakeholders, including wet lab scientists, informaticians and data scientists, manufacturers, and medical professionals. In order to build bridges between this diverse group of professionals, the International Lipidomics Society and its Clinical Lipidomics Interest Group were created. This opinion article is intended to provide an overview of international efforts to tackle the issues of workflow harmonization, and to serve as an open invitation for others to join this growing community.

Bharath Kumar Raghuraman, Aliona Bogdanova, HongKee Moon, Ignacy Rzagalinski, Eric R Geertsma, Lena Hersemann, Andrej Shevchenko
Median-Based Absolute Quantification of Proteins Using Fully Unlabeled Generic Internal Standard (FUGIS).
J Proteome Res, 21(1) 132-141 (2022)
Open Access DOI
By reporting the molar abundance of proteins, absolute quantification determines their stoichiometry in complexes, pathways, or networks. Typically, absolute quantification relies either on protein-specific isotopically labeled peptide standards or on a semiempirical calibration against the average abundance of peptides chosen from arbitrarily selected proteins. In contrast, a generic protein standard FUGIS (fully unlabeled generic internal standard) requires no isotopic labeling, chemical synthesis, or external calibration and is applicable to quantifying proteins of any organismal origin. The median intensity of the peptide peaks produced by the tryptic digestion of FUGIS is used as a single-point calibrant to determine the molar abundance of any codigested protein. Powered by FUGIS, median-based absolute quantification (MBAQ) outperformed other methods of untargeted proteome-wide absolute quantification.

Jens Schneeweiß, Anna Shevchenko, Alena Kasjuk, Anna Bartrow, Lyudmila Shumilovskikh, Andrea Schuhmann, Leonid Gorobets, Elona Ljaškevič
Was war im Topf vom Prager Typ? Die Entschlüsselung frühmittelalterlicher Tagesgerichte durch Paläoproteomik angebrannter Speisekrusten.
In: Über Speisen, Getränke und Macht zwischen Spätantike und Karolingerzeit . (Eds.) Katherine S Pollard,Grenzach-Wyhlen,Verlag Bernhard Albert Greiner (2022),257-276

Victor Girard, Florence Jollivet, Oskar Knittelfelder, Marion Celle, Jean-Noel Arsac, Gilles Chatelain, Daan M Van den Brink, Thierry Baron, Andrej Shevchenko, Ronald P Kühnlein, Nathalie Davoust#, Bertrand Mollereau#
Abnormal accumulation of lipid droplets in neurons induces the conversion of alpha-Synuclein to proteolytic resistant forms in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.
PLoS Genet, 17(11) Art. No. e1009921 (2021)
Open Access DOI
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by alpha-synuclein (αSyn) aggregation and associated with abnormalities in lipid metabolism. The accumulation of lipids in cytoplasmic organelles called lipid droplets (LDs) was observed in cellular models of PD. To investigate the pathophysiological consequences of interactions between αSyn and proteins that regulate the homeostasis of LDs, we used a transgenic Drosophila model of PD, in which human αSyn is specifically expressed in photoreceptor neurons. We first found that overexpression of the LD-coating proteins Perilipin 1 or 2 (dPlin1/2), which limit the access of lipases to LDs, markedly increased triacylglyclerol (TG) loaded LDs in neurons. However, dPlin-induced-LDs in neurons are independent of lipid anabolic (diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1/midway, fatty acid transport protein/dFatp) and catabolic (brummer TG lipase) enzymes, indicating that alternative mechanisms regulate neuronal LD homeostasis. Interestingly, the accumulation of LDs induced by various LD proteins (dPlin1, dPlin2, CG7900 or KlarsichtLD-BD) was synergistically amplified by the co-expression of αSyn, which localized to LDs in both Drosophila photoreceptor neurons and in human neuroblastoma cells. Finally, the accumulation of LDs increased the resistance of αSyn to proteolytic digestion, a characteristic of αSyn aggregation in human neurons. We propose that αSyn cooperates with LD proteins to inhibit lipolysis and that binding of αSyn to LDs contributes to the pathogenic misfolding and aggregation of αSyn in neurons.

Filomena Broeskamp, Elizabeth S M Edrich, Oskar Knittelfelder, Lisa Neuhaus, Thorsten Meyer, Jonas Heyden, Lukas Habernig, Florian Kreppel, Campbell W Gourlay#, Patrick Rockenfeller#
Porin 1 Modulates Autophagy in Yeast.
Cells, 10(9) Art. No. 2416 (2021)
Open Access DOI
Autophagy is a cellular recycling program which efficiently reduces the cellular burden of ageing. Autophagy is characterised by nucleation of isolation membranes, which grow in size and further expand to form autophagosomes, engulfing cellular material to be degraded by fusion with lysosomes (vacuole in yeast). Autophagosomal membranes do not bud from a single cell organelle, but are generated de novo. Several lipid sources for autophagosomal membranes have been identified, but the whole process of their generation is complex and not entirely understood. In this study, we investigated how the mitochondrial outer membrane protein porin 1 (Por1), the yeast orthologue of mammalian voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), affects autophagy in yeast. We show that POR1 deficiency reduces the autophagic capacity and leads to changes in vacuole and lipid homeostasis. We further investigated whether limited phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) availability in por1∆ was causative for reduced autophagy by overexpression of the PE-generating phosphatidylserine decarboxylase 1 (Psd1). Altogether, our results show that POR1 deficiency is associated with reduced autophagy, which can be circumvented by additional PSD1 overexpression. This suggests a role for Por1 in Psd1-mediated autophagy regulation.

Josef Ecker✳︎, Elisa Benedetti✳︎, Alida S D Kindt✳︎, Marcus Höring, Markus Perl, Andrea Christel Machmüller, Anna Sichler, Johannes Plagge, Yuting Wang, Sebastian Zeissig, Andrej Shevchenko, Ralph Burkhardt, Jan Krumsiek, Gerhard Liebisch, Klaus-Peter Janssen
The Colorectal Cancer Lipidome: Identification of a Robust Tumor-Specific Lipid Species Signature.
Gastroenterology, 161(3) 910-923 (2021)
Lipidomic changes were causally linked to metabolic diseases, but the scenario for colorectal cancer (CRC) is less clear. We investigated the CRC lipidome for putative tumor-specific alterations through analysis of 3 independent retrospective patient cohorts from 2 clinical centers, to derive a clinically useful signature.

Olga Vvedenskaya✳︎, Tim Daniel Rose✳︎, Oskar Knittelfelder, Alessandra Palladini, Judith Ah Wodke, Kai Schuhmann, Jacobo Miranda Ackerman, Yuting Wang, Canan Has, Mario Brosch, Veera Raghavan Thangapandi, Stephan Buch, Thomas Züllig, Jürgen Hartler, Harald C Köfeler, Christoph Röcken, Ünal Coskun, Edda Klipp, Witigo von Schoenfels, Justus Gross, Clemens Schafmayer, Jochen Hampe, Josch K Pauling#, Andrej Shevchenko#
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease stratification by liver lipidomics.
J Lipid Res, 62 Art. No. 100104 (2021)
Open Access DOI
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic dysfunction leading to hepatic steatosis. However, NAFLD's global impact on the liver lipidome is poorly understood. Using high-resolution shotgun mass spectrometry, we quantified the molar abundance of 316 species from 22 major lipid classes in liver biopsies of 365 patients, including nonsteatotic patients with normal or excessive weight, patients diagnosed with NAFL (nonalcoholic fatty liver) or NASH (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis), and patients bearing common mutations of NAFLD-related protein factors. We confirmed the progressive accumulation of di- and triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters in the liver of NAFL and NASH patients, while the bulk composition of glycerophospho- and sphingolipids remained unchanged. Further stratification by biclustering analysis identified sphingomyelin species comprising n24:2 fatty acid moieties as membrane lipid markers of NAFLD. Normalized relative abundance of sphingomyelins SM 43:3;2 and SM 43:1;2 containing n24:2 and n24:0 fatty acid moieties, respectively, showed opposite trends during NAFLD progression and distinguished NAFL and NASH lipidomes from the lipidome of nonsteatotic livers. Together with several glycerophospholipids containing a C22:6 fatty acid moiety, these lipids serve as markers of early and advanced stages of NAFL.

Harald C Köfeler, Thomas O Eichmann, R Ahrends, John A Bowden, Niklas Danne-Rasche, Edward A Dennis, Maria Fedorova, William J Griffiths, Xianlin Han, Jürgen Hartler, Michal Holčapek, Robert Jirásko, Jeremy P Koelmel, Christer S. Ejsing, Gerhard Liebisch, Zuyao Ni, Valerie B O'Donnell, Oswald Quehenberger, Dominik Schwudke, Andrej Shevchenko, Michael J O Wakelam, Markus R Wenk, Denise Wolrab, Kim Ekroos
Quality control requirements for the correct annotation of lipidomics data.
Nat Commun, 12(1) Art. No. 4771 (2021)
Open Access DOI

Sarah Fischer, Rohan Jain#, Thomas Krause, Purvi Jain, Satoru Tsushima, Anna Shevchenko, René Hübner, Norbert Jordan#
Impact of the Microbial Origin and Active Microenvironment on the Shape of Biogenic Elemental Selenium Nanomaterials.
Environ Sci Technol, 55(13) 9161-9171 (2021)
The shape of nanomaterials affects their colloidal properties, cellular uptake, and fate in the environment. The microbial origin and microenvironment can play a role in altering the shape of the nanomaterial. However, such studies have never been conducted. Here, we demonstrate that the selenium nanomaterials produced by Escherichia coli K-12 are stable and remain as BioSe-Nanospheres under thermophilic conditions, while those produced by anaerobic granular sludge transform to BioSe-Nanorods, due to a lower quantity of proteins coating these nanoparticles, which has been verified by proteomics analysis as well as using chemically synthesized selenium nanomaterials. Furthermore, the presence of Bacillus safensis JG-B5T transform the purified BioSe-Nanospheres produced by E. coli K-12 to BioSe-Nanorods, though they are not transformed in the absence of B. safensis JG-B5T. This is due to the production of peptidases by B. safensis JG-B5T that cleaves the protein coating the BioSe-Nanospheres produced by E. coli K-12, leading to their transformation to trigonal BioSe-Nanorods, which is the thermodynamically more stable state. These findings suggest that the fate of selenium and probably other redox-active elements released from the biological wastewater treatment units needs to be reevaluated and improved by including microbial criteria for better accuracy.

Cristina Chiva, Teresa Mendes Maia, Christian Panse, Karel Stejskal, Thibaut Douché, Mariette Matondo, Damarys Loew, Dominic Helm, Mandy Rettel, Karl Mechtler, Francis Impens, Paolo Nanni#, Anna Shevchenko#, Eduard Sabidó#
Quality standards in proteomics research facilities: Common standards and quality procedures are essential for proteomics facilities and their users.
EMBO Rep, 22(6) Art. No. e52626 (2021)
Open Access DOI
Proteomics research infrastructures and core facilities within the Core for Life alliance advocate for community policies for quality control to ensure high standards in proteomics services.

Mayes Alswady-Hoff, Johanna Samulin Erdem, Santosh Phuyal, Oskar Knittelfelder, Animesh Sharma, Davi de Miranda Fonseca, Øivind Skare, Geir Slupphaug, Shanbeh Zienolddiny
Long-Term Exposure to Nanosized TiO2 Triggers Stress Responses and Cell Death Pathways in Pulmonary Epithelial Cells.
Int J Mol Sci, 22(10) Art. No. 5349 (2021)
Open Access DOI
There is little in vitro data available on long-term effects of TiO2 exposure. Such data are important for improving the understanding of underlying mechanisms of adverse health effects of TiO2. Here, we exposed pulmonary epithelial cells to two doses (0.96 and 1.92 µg/cm2) of TiO2 for 13 weeks and effects on cell cycle and cell death mechanisms, i.e., apoptosis and autophagy were determined after 4, 8 and 13 weeks of exposure. Changes in telomere length, cellular protein levels and lipid classes were also analyzed at 13 weeks of exposure. We observed that the TiO2 exposure increased the fraction of cells in G1-phase and reduced the fraction of cells in G2-phase, which was accompanied by an increase in the fraction of late apoptotic/necrotic cells. This corresponded with an induced expression of key apoptotic proteins i.e., BAD and BAX, and an accumulation of several lipid classes involved in cellular stress and apoptosis. These findings were further supported by quantitative proteome profiling data showing an increase in proteins involved in cell stress and genomic maintenance pathways following TiO2 exposure. Altogether, we suggest that cell stress response and cell death pathways may be important molecular events in long-term health effects of TiO2.

Tingting Fu, Oskar Knittelfelder, Olivier Geffard, Yohann Clément, Eric Testet, Nicolas Elie, David Touboul, Khedidja Abbaci, Andrej Shevchenko, Jerome Lemoine, Arnaud Chaumot, Arnaud Salvador, Davide Degli-Esposti, Sophie Ayciriex
Shotgun lipidomics and mass spectrometry imaging unveil diversity and dynamics in Gammarus fossarum lipid composition.
iScience, 24(2) Art. No. 102115 (2021)
Open Access DOI
Sentinel species are playing an indispensable role in monitoring environmental pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Many pollutants found in water prove to be endocrine disrupting chemicals that could cause disruptions in lipid homeostasis in aquatic species. A comprehensive profiling of the lipidome of these species is thus an essential step toward understanding the mechanism of toxicity induced by pollutants. Both the composition and spatial distribution of lipids in freshwater crustacean Gammarus fossarum were extensively examined herein. The baseline lipidome of gammarids of different sex and reproductive stages was established by high throughput shotgun lipidomics. Spatial lipid mapping by high resolution mass spectrometry imaging led to the discovery of sulfate-based lipids in hepatopancreas and their accumulation in mature oocytes. A diverse and dynamic lipid composition in G. fossarum was uncovered, which deepens our understanding of the biochemical changes during development and which could serve as a reference for future ecotoxicological studies.

Christoph Heier, Oskar Knittelfelder, Harald F Hofbauer, Wolfgang Mende, Ingrid Pörnbacher, Laura Schiller, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Hao Xie, Sebastian Grönke, Andrej Shevchenko, Ronald P Kühnlein
Hormone-sensitive lipase couples intergenerational sterol metabolism to reproductive success.
Elife, 10 Art. No. e63252 (2021)
Open Access DOI
Triacylglycerol (TG) and steryl ester (SE) lipid storage is a universal strategy to maintain organismal energy and membrane homeostasis. Cycles of building and mobilizing storage fat are fundamental in (re)distributing lipid substrates between tissues or to progress ontogenetic transitions. In this study we show that Hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) specifically controls SE mobilization to initiate intergenerational sterol transfer in Drosophila melanogaster. Tissue-autonomous Hsl functions in the maternal fat body and germline coordinately prevent adult SE overstorage and maximize sterol allocation to embryos. While Hsl-deficiency is largely dispensable for normal development on sterol-rich diets, animals depend on adipocyte Hsl for optimal fecundity when dietary sterol becomes limiting. Notably, accumulation of SE but not of TG is a characteristic of Hsl-deficient cells across phyla including murine white adipocytes. In summary, we identified Hsl as an ancestral regulator of SE degradation, which improves intergenerational sterol transfer and reproductive success in flies.

Sarita Hebbar, Kai Schuhmann, Andrej Shevchenko, Elisabeth Knust
Hydroxylated sphingolipid biosynthesis regulates photoreceptor apical domain morphogenesis.
J Cell Biol, 219(12) Art. No. e201911100 (2020)
Apical domains of epithelial cells often undergo dramatic changes during morphogenesis to form specialized structures, such as microvilli. Here, we addressed the role of lipids during morphogenesis of the rhabdomere, the microvilli-based photosensitive organelle of Drosophila photoreceptor cells. Shotgun lipidomics analysis performed on mutant alleles of the polarity regulator crumbs, exhibiting varying rhabdomeric growth defects, revealed a correlation between increased abundance of hydroxylated sphingolipids and abnormal rhabdomeric growth. This could be attributed to an up-regulation of fatty acid hydroxylase transcription. Indeed, direct genetic perturbation of the hydroxylated sphingolipid metabolism modulated rhabdomere growth in a crumbs mutant background. One of the pathways targeted by sphingolipid metabolism turned out to be the secretory route of newly synthesized Rhodopsin, a major rhabdomeric protein. In particular, altered biosynthesis of hydroxylated sphingolipids impaired apical trafficking via Rab11, and thus apical membrane growth. The intersection of lipid metabolic pathways with apical domain growth provides a new facet to our understanding of apical growth during morphogenesis.

Damla Kaptan, Sider Penkov, Xingyu Zhang, Vamshidhar Gade, Bharath Kumar Raghuraman, Roberta Galli, Júlio L Sampaio, Robert Haase, Edmund Koch, Andrej Shevchenko, Vasily Zaburdaev, Teymuras V. Kurzchalia
Exogenous ethanol induces a metabolic switch that prolongs the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larva and enhances its resistance to desiccation.
Aging Cell, 19(10) Art. No. e13214 (2020)
Open Access DOI
The dauer larva of Caenorhabditis elegans, destined to survive long periods of food scarcity and harsh environment, does not feed and has a very limited exchange of matter with the exterior. It was assumed that the survival time is determined by internal energy stores. Here, we show that ethanol can provide a potentially unlimited energy source for dauers by inducing a controlled metabolic shift that allows it to be metabolized into carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids. Dauer larvae provided with ethanol survive much longer and have greater desiccation tolerance. On the cellular level, ethanol prevents the deterioration of mitochondria caused by energy depletion. By modeling the metabolism of dauers of wild-type and mutant strains with and without ethanol, we suggest that the mitochondrial health and survival of an organism provided with an unlimited source of carbon depends on the balance between energy production and toxic product(s) of lipid metabolism.

Grzegorz Chwastek, Michal Surma, Sandra Rizk, Daniel Grosser, Oksana Lavrynenko, Magdalena Rucińska, Helena Jambor, James Sáenz
Principles of Membrane Adaptation Revealed through Environmentally Induced Bacterial Lipidome Remodeling.
Cell Rep, 32(12) Art. No. 108165 (2020)
Open Access DOI
Cells, from microbes to mammals, adapt their membrane lipid composition in response to environmental changes to maintain optimal properties. Global patterns of lipidome remodeling are poorly understood, particularly in organisms with simple lipid compositions that can provide insight into fundamental principles of membrane adaptation. Using shotgun lipidomics, we examine the simple yet, as we show here, adaptive lipidome of the plant-associated Gram-negative bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens. We observe that minimally 11 lipids account for 90% of total variability, thus constraining the upper limit of variable lipids required for an adaptive living membrane. Through lipid features analysis, we reveal that acyl chain remodeling is not evenly distributed across lipid classes, resulting in headgroup-specific effects of acyl chain variability on membrane properties. Results herein implicate headgroup-specific acyl chain remodeling as a mechanism for fine-tuning the membrane's physical state and provide a resource for using M. extorquens to explore the design principles of living membranes.

Juliana G. Roscito, Kaushikaram Subramanian, Ronald Naumann, Mihail Sarov, Anna Shevchenko, Aliona Bogdanova, Thomas Kurth, Leo Foerster, Moritz Kreysing, Michael Hiller
Recapitulating evolutionary divergence in a single cis-regulatory element is sufficient to cause expression changes of the lens gene Tdrd7.
Mol Biol Evol, 38(2) 380-392 (2020)
Open Access PDF DOI
Mutations in cis-regulatory elements play important roles for phenotypic changes during evolution. Eye degeneration in the blind mole rat (BMR; Nannospalax galili) and other subterranean mammals is significantly associated with widespread divergence of eye regulatory elements, but the effect of these regulatory mutations on eye development and function has not been explored. Here, we investigate the effect of mutations observed in the BMR sequence of a conserved non-coding element upstream of Tdrd7, a pleiotropic gene required for lens development and spermatogenesis. We first show that this conserved element is a transcriptional repressor in lens cells and that the BMR sequence partially lost repressor activity. Next, we recapitulated evolutionary changes in this element by precisely replacing the endogenous regulatory element in a mouse line by the orthologous BMR sequence with CRISPR-Cas9. Strikingly, this repressor replacement caused a more than two-fold up-regulation of Tdrd7 in the developing lens; however, increased mRNA level does not result in a corresponding increase in TDRD7 protein nor an obvious lens phenotype, possibly explained by buffering at the posttranscriptional level. Our results are consistent with eye degeneration in subterranean mammals having a polygenic basis where many small-effect mutations in different eye-regulatory elements collectively contribute to phenotypic differences.

Laura Christin Trautenberg, Oskar Knittelfelder, Carla Hofmann, Andrej Shevchenko, Marko Brankatschk, Elodie Prince
How to use the development of individual Drosophila larvae as a metabolic sensor.
J. Insect Physiol., 126 Art. No. 104095 (2020)
Metabolic research is a challenge because of the variety of data within experimental series and the difficulty of replicating results among scientific groups. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a cost-effective and reliable pioneer model to screen dietary variables for metabolic research. One of the main reasons for problems in this field are differences in food recipes, diet-associated microbial environments and the pharmacokinetic behavior of nutrients across the gut-blood barrier. To prevent such experimental shortcomings, a common strategy is to pool scores of subjects into one sample to create an average statement. However, this approach lacks information about the biological spread and may provoke misleading interpretations. We propose to use the developmental rate of individual Drosophila larvae as a metabolic sensor. To do so, we introduce here a 96-well plate-based assay, which allows screening for multiple variables including food quality, microbial load, and genetic differences. We demonstrate that on a diet that is rich in calories, pupation is sensitive to the variation of dietary lipid compounds and that genotypes considered as wild-types/controls produce different developmental profiles. Our platform is suited for later automation and represents a potent high-throughput screening tool for the pharmacology and food industry. If used systematically, our assay could become a powerful reference tool to compare the quality of used dietary configurations with published benchmark recipes.

Bharath Kumar Raghuraman✳︎, Sarita Hebbar✳︎, Mukesh Kumar, HongKee Moon, Ian Henry, Elisabeth Knust, Andrej Shevchenko
Absolute Quantification of Proteins in the Eye of Drosophila melanogaster.
Proteomics, 20(23) Art. No. e1900049 (2020)
Open Access DOI
Absolute (molar) quantification of proteins determines their molar ratios in complexes, networks and metabolic pathways. We employed MS Western workflow to determine molar abundances of proteins potentially critical for morphogenesis and phototransduction (PT) in eyes of Drosophila melanogaster. We used a single chimeric 264 kDa protein standard that covers, in total, 197 peptides from 43 proteins. The majority of proteins were independently quantified with 2 to 4 proteotypic peptides with the coefficient of variation of less than 15%, better than 1000-fold dynamic range and sub-femtomole sensitivity. We determined molar abundances of the components of the PT machinery and the rhabdomere, the photosensitive organelle of the fly eye, and how they changed when rhabdomere morphogenesis is perturbed by genetic manipulation of the evolutionary conserved gene crumbs (crb). Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD018001 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Veera Raghavan Thangapandi, Oskar Knittelfelder, Mario Brosch, Eleonora Patsenker, Olga Vvedenskaya, Stephan Buch, Sebastian Hinz, Alexander Hendricks, Marina Nati, Alexander Herrmann, Devavrat Ravindra Rekhade, Thomas Berg, Madlen Matz-Soja, Klaus Huse, Edda Klipp, Josch K Pauling, Judith Ah Wodke, Jacobo Miranda Ackerman, Malte von Bonin, Elmar Aigner, Christian Datz, Witigo von Schönfels, Sophie Nehring, Sebastian Zeissig, Christoph Röcken, Andreas Dahl, Trian Chavakis, Felix Stickel, Andrej Shevchenko, Clemens Schafmayer, Jochen Hampe, Pallavi Subramanian
Loss of hepatic Mboat7 leads to liver fibrosis.
Gut, 70(5) 940-950 (2020)
Open Access DOI
The rs641738C>T variant located near the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7 (MBOAT7) locus is associated with fibrosis in liver diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcohol-related liver disease, hepatitis B and C. We aim to understand the mechanism by which the rs641738C>T variant contributes to pathogenesis of NAFLD.

Stella Finkelstein✳︎, Sidney M Gospe✳︎, Kai Schuhmann, Andrej Shevchenko, Vadim Y Arshavsky, Ekaterina S Lobanova
Phosphoinositide Profile of the Mouse Retina.
Cells, 9(6) Art. No. E1417 (2020)
Open Access DOI
Phosphoinositides are known to play multiple roles in eukaryotic cells. Although dysregulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in the retina has been reported to cause visual dysfunction in animal models and human patients, our understanding of the phosphoinositide composition of the retina is limited. Here, we report a characterization of the phosphoinositide profile of the mouse retina and an analysis of the subcellular localization of major phosphorylated phosphoinositide forms in light-sensitive photoreceptor neurons. Using chromatography of deacylated phosphatidylinositol headgroups, we established PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P as two major phosphorylated phosphoinositides in the retina. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we revealed 18:0/20:4 and 16:0/20:4 as major fatty-acyl chains of retinal phosphoinositides. Finally, analysis of fluorescent phosphoinositide sensors in rod photoreceptors demonstrated distinct subcellular distribution patterns of major phosphoinositides. The PI(4,5)P2 reporter was enriched in the inner segments and synapses, but was barely detected in the light-sensitive outer segments. The PI(4)P reporter was mostly found in the outer and inner segments and the areas around nuclei, but to a lesser degree in the synaptic region. These findings provide support for future mechanistic studies defining the biological significance of major mono- (PI(4)P) and bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) phosphatidylinositols in photoreceptor biology and retinal health.

Milena Schuhmacher, Andreas T Grasskamp, Pavel Barahtjan, Nicolai Wagner, Benoit Lombardot, Jan Simon Schuhmacher, Pia Sala, Annett Lohmann, Ian Henry, Andrej Shevchenko, Ünal Coskun, Alexander M Walter#, André Nadler#
Live-cell lipid biochemistry reveals a role of diacylglycerol side-chain composition for cellular lipid dynamics and protein affinities.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A., 117(14) 7729-7738 (2020)
Open Access DOI
Every cell produces thousands of distinct lipid species, but insight into how lipid chemical diversity contributes to biological signaling is lacking, particularly because of a scarcity of methods for quantitatively studying lipid function in living cells. Using the example of diacylglycerols, prominent second messengers, we here investigate whether lipid chemical diversity can provide a basis for cellular signal specification. We generated photo-caged lipid probes, which allow acute manipulation of distinct diacylglycerol species in the plasma membrane. Combining uncaging experiments with mathematical modeling, we were able to determine binding constants for diacylglycerol-protein interactions, and kinetic parameters for diacylglycerol transbilayer movement and turnover in quantitative live-cell experiments. Strikingly, we find that affinities and kinetics vary by orders of magnitude due to diacylglycerol side-chain composition. These differences are sufficient to explain differential recruitment of diacylglycerol binding proteins and, thus, differing downstream phosphorylation patterns. Our approach represents a generally applicable method for elucidating the biological function of single lipid species on subcellular scales in quantitative live-cell experiments.

Sider Penkov✳︎, Bharath Kumar Raghuraman✳︎, Cihan Erkut, Jana Oertel, Roberta Galli, Eduardo Jacobo Miranda Ackerman, Daniela Vorkel, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Edmund Koch, Karim Fahmy, Andrej Shevchenko, Teymuras V. Kurzchalia
A metabolic switch regulates the transition between growth and diapause in C. elegans.
BMC Biol, 18(1) Art. No. 31 (2020)
Open Access DOI
Metabolic activity alternates between high and low states during different stages of an organism's life cycle. During the transition from growth to quiescence, a major metabolic shift often occurs from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. We use the entry of Caenorhabditis elegans into the dauer larval stage, a developmentally arrested stage formed in response to harsh environmental conditions, as a model to study the global metabolic changes and underlying molecular mechanisms associated with growth to quiescence transition.

Oskar Knittelfelder, Elodie Prince, Susanne Sales, Eric Fritzsche, Thomas Wöhner, Marko Brankatschk, Andrej Shevchenko
Sterols as dietary markers for Drosophila melanogaster.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids, 1865(7) Art. No. 158683 (2020)
During cold acclimation fruit flies switch their feeding from yeast to plant food, however there are no robust molecular markers to monitor this in the wild. Drosophila melanogaster is a sterol auxotroph and relies on dietary sterols to produce lipid membranes, lipoproteins and molting hormones. We employed shotgun lipidomics to quantify eight major food sterols in total lipid extracts of heads and genital tracts of adult male and female flies. We found that their sterol composition is dynamic and reflective of fly diet in an organ-specific manner. Season-dependent changes observed in the organs of wild-living flies suggested that the molar ratio between yeast (ergosterol, zymosterol) and plant (sitosterol, stigmasterol) sterols is a quantifiable, generic and unequivocal marker of their feeding behavior suitable for ecological and environmental population-based studies. The enrichment of phytosterols over yeast sterols in wild-living flies at low temperatures is consistent with switching from yeast to plant diet and corroborates the concomitantly increased unsaturation of their membrane lipids.

Takashi Namba#, Judit Dóczi, Anneline Pinson, Lei Xing, Nereo Kalebic, Michaela Wilsch-Bräuninger, Katherine S. Long, Samir Vaid, Janelle Lauer, Aliona Bogdanova, Barbara Borgonovo, Anna Shevchenko, Patrick Keller, David N. Drechsel, Teymuras V. Kurzchalia, Pauline Wimberger, Christos Chinopoulos, Wieland Huttner#
Human-Specific ARHGAP11B Acts in Mitochondria to Expand Neocortical Progenitors by Glutaminolysis.
Neuron, 105(5) 867-881 (2020)
The human-specific gene ARHGAP11B is preferentially expressed in neural progenitors of fetal human neocortex and increases abundance and proliferation of basal progenitors (BPs), which have a key role in neocortex expansion. ARHGAP11B has therefore been implicated in the evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex, but its mode of action has been unknown. Here, we show that ARHGAP11B is imported into mitochondria, where it interacts with the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) and inhibits the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). BP expansion by ARHGAP11B requires its presence in mitochondria, and pharmacological inhibition of ANT function or mPTP opening mimic BP expansion by ARHGAP11B. Searching for the underlying metabolic basis, we find that BP expansion by ARHGAP11B requires glutaminolysis, the conversion of glutamine to glutamate for the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Hence, an ARHGAP11B-induced, mitochondria-based effect on BP metabolism that is a hallmark of highly mitotically active cells appears to underlie its role in neocortex expansion.

Sarah Fischer, Thomas Krause, Franziska Lederer, Mohamed L Merroun, Anna Shevchenko, René Hübner, Tamas Firkala, Thorsten Stumpf, Norbert Jordan, Rohan Jain
Bacillus safensis JG-B5T affects the fate of selenium by extracellular production of colloidally less stable selenium nanoparticles.
J Hazard Mater, 384 Art. No. 121146 (2020)
Understanding the impact of microorganisms on the mobility of selenium (Se) is important for predicting the fate of toxic Se in the environment and improving wastewater treatment technologies. The bacteria strain Bacillus safensis JG-B5T, isolated from soil in a uranium mining waste pile, can influence the Se speciation in the environment and engineered systems. However, the mechanism and conditions of this process remain unknown. This study found that the B. safensis JG-B5T is an obligate aerobic microorganism with an ability to reduce 70% of 2.5 mM selenite to produce red spherical biogenic elemental selenium nanoparticles (BioSeNPs). Only extracellular production of BioSeNPs was observed using transmission electron microscopy. The two-chamber reactor experiments, genome analysis and corona proteins identified on BioSeNPs suggested that the selenite reduction process was primarily mediated through membrane-associated proteins, like succinate dehydrogenase. Extracellular presence and low colloidal stability of BioSeNPs as indicated by ζ-potential measurements, render B. safensis JG-B5T an attractive candidate in wastewater treatment as it provides easy way of recovering Se while maintaining low Se discharge. As this microorganism decreases Se mobility, it will affect Se bioavailability in the environment and decreases its toxicity.

Yuting Wang, Sebastian Hinz, Ortrud Uckermann, Pia Hönscheid, Witigo von Schönfels, Greta Burmeister, Alexander Hendricks, Jacobo Miranda Ackerman, Gustavo Baretton, Jochen Hampe, Mario Brosch, Clemens Schafmayer, Andrej Shevchenko#, Sebastian Zeissig#
Shotgun lipidomics-based characterization of the landscape of lipid metabolism in colorectal cancer.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids, 1865(3) Art. No. 158579 (2020)
Solid tumors are characterized by global metabolic alterations which contribute to their growth and progression. Altered gene expression profiles and plasma lipid composition suggested a role for metabolic reprogramming in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. However, a conclusive picture of CRC-associated lipidome alterations in the tumor tissue has not emerged. Here, we determined molar abundances of 342 species from 20 lipid classes in matched biopsies of CRC and adjacent normal mucosa. We demonstrate that in contrast to previous reports, CRC shows a largely preserved lipidome composition that resembles that of normal colonic mucosa. Important exceptions include increased levels of lyso-phosphatidylinositols in CRC and reduced abundance of ether phospholipids in advanced stages of CRC. As such, our observations challenge the concept of widespread alterations in lipid metabolism in CRC and rather suggest changes in the cellular lipid profile that are limited to selected lipids involved in signaling and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species.

Ekaterina S Lobanova#, Kai Schuhmann, Stella Finkelstein, Tylor R Lewis, Martha A Cady, Ying Hao, Casey Keuthan, John D Ash, Marie E Burns, Andrej Shevchenko, Vadim Y Arshavsky#
Disrupted Blood-Retina Lysophosphatidylcholine Transport Impairs Photoreceptor Health But Not Visual Signal Transduction.
J Neurosci, 39(49) 9689-9701 (2019)
Retinal photoreceptor cells contain the highest concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in our bodies, and it has been long assumed that this is critical for supporting normal vision. Indeed, early studies using DHA dietary restriction documented reduced light sensitivity by DHA-deprived retinas. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a major route of DHA entry in the retina is the delivery across the blood-retina barrier by the sodium-dependent lipid transporter, Mfsd2a. This discovery opened a unique opportunity to analyze photoreceptor health and function in DHA-deprived retinas using the Mfsd2a knock-out mouse as animal model. Our lipidome analyses of Mfsd2a-/- retinas and outer segment membranes corroborated the previously reported decrease in the fraction of DHA-containing phospholipids and a compensatory increase in phospholipids containing arachidonic acid. We also revealed an increase in the retinal content of monounsaturated fatty acids and a reduction in very long chain fatty acids. These changes could be explained by a combination of reduced DHA supply to the retina and a concomitant upregulation of several fatty acid desaturases controlled by sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factors, which are upregulated in Mfsd2a-/- retinas. Mfsd2a-/- retinas undergo slow progressive degeneration, with ∼30% of photoreceptor cells lost by the age of 6 months. Despite this pathology, the ultrastructure Mfsd2a-/- photoreceptors and their ability to produce light responses were essentially normal. These data demonstrate that, whereas maintaining the lysophosphatidylcholine route of DHA supply to the retina is essential for long-term photoreceptor survival, it is not important for supporting normal phototransduction.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are greatly enriched in the nervous system, with the highest concentration found in the light-sensitive membranes of photoreceptor cells. In this study, we analyzed the consequences of impaired DHA transport across the blood-retina barrier. We have found that, in addition to a predictable reduction in the DHA level, the affected retinas undergo a complex, transcriptionally-driven rebuilding of their membrane lipidome in a pattern preserving the overall saturation/desaturation balance of retinal phospholipids. Remarkably, these changes do not affect the ability of photoreceptors to produce responses to light but are detrimental for the long-term survival of these cells.

Melissa Bedard, Dilip Shrestha, David A Priestman, Yuting Wang, Falk Schneider, Juan D Matute, Shankar S Iyer, Uzi Gileadi, Gennaro Prota, Matheswaran Kandasamy, Natacha Veerapen, Gurdyal Besra, Marco Fritzsche, Sebastian Zeissig, Andrej Shevchenko, John C Christianson, Frances Platt, Christian Eggeling, Richard S Blumberg, Mariolina Salio, Vincenzo Cerundolo
Sterile activation of invariant natural killer T cells by ER-stressed antigen-presenting cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A., 116(47) 23671-23681 (2019)
Open Access DOI
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells have the unique ability to shape immunity during antitumor immune responses and other forms of sterile and nonsterile inflammation. Recent studies have highlighted a variety of classes of endogenous and pathogen-derived lipid antigens that can trigger iNKT cell activation under sterile and nonsterile conditions. However, the context and mechanisms that drive the presentation of self-lipid antigens in sterile inflammation remain unclear. Here we report that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stressed myeloid cells, via signaling events modulated by the protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) pathway, increase CD1d-mediated presentation of immunogenic endogenous lipid species, which results in enhanced iNKT cell activation both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that actin cytoskeletal reorganization during ER stress results in an altered distribution of CD1d on the cell surface, which contributes to enhanced iNKT cell activation. These results define a previously unidentified mechanism that controls iNKT cell activation during sterile inflammation.

Kai Schuhmann, HongKee Moon, Henrik Thomas, Jacobo Miranda Ackerman, Michael Groessl, Nicolai Wagner, Markus Kellmann, Ian Henry, André Nadler, Andrej Shevchenko
Quantitative Fragmentation Model for Bottom-Up Shotgun Lipidomics.
Anal Chem, 91(18) 12085-12093 (2019)
Open Access DOI
Quantitative bottom-up shotgun lipidomics relies on molecular species-specific "signature" fragments consistently detectable in tandem mass spectra of analytes and standards. Molecular species of glycerophospholipids are typically quantified using carboxylate fragments of their fatty acid moieties produced by higher-energy collisional dissociation of their molecular anions. However, employing standards whose fatty acids moieties are similar, yet not identical, to the target lipids could severely compromise their quantification. We developed a generic and portable fragmentation model implemented in the open-source LipidXte software that harmonizes the abundances of carboxylate anion fragments originating from fatty acid moieties having different sn-1/2 positions at the glycerol backbone, length of the hydrocarbon chain, and number and location of double bonds. The postacquisition adjustment enables unbiased absolute (molar) quantification of glycerophospholipid species independent of instrument settings, collision energy, and employed internal standards.

Angelina S Gross, Andreas Zimmermann, Tobias Pendl, Sabrina Schroeder, Hannes Schoenlechner, Oskar Knittelfelder, Laura Lamplmayr, Ana Santiso, Andreas Aufschnaiter, Daniel Waltenstorfer, Sandra Ortonobes Lara, Sarah Stryeck, Christina Kast, Christoph Ruckenstuhl, Sebastian J Hofer, Birgit Michelitsch, Martina Woelflingseder, Rolf Müller, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Tobias Madl, Sabrina Büttner, Kai-Uwe Fröhlich, Andrej Shevchenko, Tobias Eisenberg
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1-dependent lipogenesis promotes autophagy downstream of AMPK.
J Biol Chem, 294(32) 12020-12039 (2019)
Open Access DOI
Autophagy, a membrane-dependent catabolic process, ensures survival of aging cells and depends on the cellular energetic status. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (Acc1) connects central energy metabolism to lipid biosynthesis and is rate-limiting for the de novo synthesis of lipids. However, it is unclear how de novo lipogenesis and its metabolic consequences affect autophagic activity. Here, we show that in aging yeast, autophagy levels highly depend on the activity of Acc1. Constitutively active Acc1 (acc1S/A ) or a deletion of the Acc1 negative regulator, Snf1 (yeast AMPK), shows elevated autophagy levels, which can be reversed by the Acc1 inhibitor soraphen A. Vice versa, pharmacological inhibition of Acc1 drastically reduces cell survival and results in the accumulation of Atg8-positive structures at the vacuolar membrane, suggesting late defects in the autophagic cascade. As expected, acc1S/A cells exhibit a reduction in acetate/acetyl-CoA availability along with elevated cellular lipid content. However, concomitant administration of acetate fails to fully revert the increase in autophagy exerted by acc1S/A Instead, administration of oleate, while mimicking constitutively active Acc1 in WT cells, alleviates the vacuolar fusion defects induced by Acc1 inhibition. Our results argue for a largely lipid-dependent process of autophagy regulation downstream of Acc1. We present a versatile genetic model to investigate the complex relationship between acetate metabolism, lipid homeostasis, and autophagy and propose Acc1-dependent lipogenesis as a fundamental metabolic path downstream of Snf1 to maintain autophagy and survival during cellular aging.

Eugenia Marbach-Breitrück, Madlen Matz-Soja, Ute Abraham, Wolfgang Schmidt-Heck, Susanne Sales, Christiane Rennert, Matthias Kern, Susanne Aleithe, Luise Spormann, Carlo Thiel, Raffaele Gerlini, Katrin Arnold, Nora Klöting, Reinhard Guthke, Damjana Rozman, Raffaele Teperino, Andrej Shevchenko, Achim Kramer, Rolf Gebhardt
Tick-tock hedgehog-mutual crosstalk with liver circadian clock promotes liver steatosis.
J Hepatol, 70(6) 1192-1202 (2019)
The mammalian circadian clock controls various aspects of liver metabolism and integrates nutritional signals. Recently, we described Hedgehog (Hh) signaling as a novel regulator of liver lipid metabolism. Herein, we investigated crosstalk between hepatic Hh signaling and circadian rhythm.

Nereo Kalebic, Carlotta Gilardi, Barbara Stepien, Michaela Wilsch-Bräuninger, Katherine S. Long, Takashi Namba, Marta Florio, Barbara Langen, Benoit Lombardot, Anna Shevchenko, Manfred W Kilimann, Hiroshi Kawasaki, Pauline Wimberger, Wieland Huttner
Neocortical Expansion Due to Increased Proliferation of Basal Progenitors Is Linked to Changes in Their Morphology.
Cell Stem Cell, 24(4) 535-550 (2019)
The evolutionary expansion of the mammalian neocortex (Ncx) is thought to be linked to increased proliferative capacity of basal progenitors (BPs) and their neurogenic capacity. Here, by quantifying BP morphology in the developing Ncx of mouse, ferret, and human, we show that increased BP proliferative capacity is linked to an increase in BP process number. We identify human membrane-bound PALMDELPHIN (PALMD-Caax) as an underlying factor, and we show that it drives BP process growth and proliferation when expressed in developing mouse and ferret Ncx. Conversely, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of PALMD or its binding partner ADDUCIN-γ in fetal human Ncx reduces BP process numbers and proliferation. We further show that PALMD-induced processes enable BPs to receive pro-proliferative integrin-dependent signals. These findings provide a link between BP morphology and proliferation, suggesting that changes in BP morphology may have contributed to the evolutionary expansion of the Ncx.

Albert Thommen✳︎, Steffen Werner✳︎, Olga Frank✳︎, Jenny Philipp, Oskar Knittelfelder, Yihui Quek, Karim Fahmy, Andrej Shevchenko, Benjamin Friedrich, Frank Jülicher#, Jochen Rink#
Body size-dependent energy storage causes Kleiber's law scaling of the metabolic rate in planarians.
Elife, 8 Art. No. e38187 (2019)
Open Access DOI
Kleiber's law, or the 3/4 -power law scaling of the metabolic rate with body mass, is considered one of the few quantitative laws in biology, yet its physiological basis remains unknown. Here, we report Kleiber's law scaling in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Its reversible and life history-independent changes in adult body mass over 3 orders of magnitude reveal that Kleiber's law does not emerge from the size-dependent decrease in cellular metabolic rate, but from a size-dependent increase in mass per cell. Through a combination of experiment and theoretical analysis of the organismal energy balance, we further show that the mass allometry is caused by body size dependent energy storage. Our results reveal the physiological origins of Kleiber's law in planarians and have general implications for understanding a fundamental scaling law in biology.

Anna Shevchenko, Andrea Schuhmann, Henrik Thomas, Günter Wetzel
Fine Endmesolithic fish caviar meal discovered by proteomics in foodcrusts from archaeological site Friesack 4 (Brandenburg, Germany).
PLoS ONE, 13(11) Art. No. e0206483 (2018)
Open Access DOI
The role of aquatic resources in ancient economies and paleodiet is important for understanding the evolution of prehistorical societies. Charred food remains from ancient pottery are valuable molecular evidence of dietary habits in antiquity. However, conventional archaeometric approaches applied in their analysis lack organismal specificity, are affected by abundant environmental contaminants, do not elucidate food processing recipes and are limited in the inland regions where diverse dietary resources are available. We performed proteomics analysis of charred organic deposits adhered on early ceramics from Mesolithic-Neolithic inland site Friesack 4 (Brandenburg, Germany). One of pots-a small coarse bowl radiocarbon dated to the end of the 5th millennium BC-was attributed to Endmesolithic pottery. Proteomics of foodcrust from this vessel identified fine carp roe meal and revealed details of a prehistorical culinary recipe. Ancient proteins were unequivocally distinguished from contemporary contaminants by computing deamidation ratios of glutamine residues. These data paint a broader picture of the site-specific exploitation of aquatic resources and contribute to better understanding of the dietary context of Neolithic transition in European inland.

Bo Burla#, Makoto Arita, Masanori Arita, Anne K Bendt, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Edward A Dennis, Kim Ekroos, Xianlin Han, Kazutaka Ikeda, Gerhard Liebisch, Michelle I Lin, Tze Ping Loh, Peter J Meikle, Matej Orešič, Oswald Quehenberger, Andrej Shevchenko#, Federico Torta, Michael J O Wakelam, Craig E Wheelock, Markus R Wenk
MS-based lipidomics of human blood plasma: a community-initiated position paper to develop accepted guidelines.
J Lipid Res, 59(10) 2001-2017 (2018)
Open Access DOI
Human blood is a self-regenerating lipid-rich biological fluid that is routinely collected in hospital settings. The inventory of lipid molecules found in blood plasma (plasma lipidome) offers insights into individual metabolism and physiology in health and disease. Disturbances in the plasma lipidome also occur in conditions that are not directly linked to lipid metabolism; therefore, plasma lipidomics based on MS is an emerging tool in an array of clinical diagnostics and disease management. However, challenges exist in the translation of such lipidomic data to clinical applications. These relate to the reproducibility, accuracy, and precision of lipid quantitation, study design, sample handling, and data sharing. This position paper emerged from a workshop that initiated a community-led process to elaborate and define a set of generally accepted guidelines for quantitative MS-based lipidomics of blood plasma or serum, with harmonization of data acquired on different instrumentation platforms across independent laboratories as an ultimate goal. We hope that other fields may benefit from and follow such a precedent.

Marko Brankatschk#, Theresia Gutmann, Oskar Knittelfelder, Alessandra Palladini, Elodie Prince, Michal Grzybek, Beate Brankatschk, Andrej Shevchenko, Ünal Coskun, Suzanne Eaton#
A Temperature-Dependent Switch in Feeding Preference Improves Drosophila Development and Survival in the Cold.
Dev Cell, 46(6) 781-793 (2018)

Maria Kotini, Elias H Barriga, Jonathan Leslie, Marc Gentzel, Verena Rauschenberger, Alexandra Schambon, Roberto Mayor
Gap junction protein Connexin-43 is a direct transcriptional regulator of N-cadherin in vivo.
Nat Commun, 9(1) Art. No. 3846 (2018)
Open Access DOI
Connexins are the primary components of gap junctions, providing direct links between cells under many physiological processes. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to this canonical role, Connexins act as transcriptional regulators. We show that Connexin 43 (Cx43) controls neural crest cell migration in vivo by directly regulating N-cadherin transcription. This activity requires interaction between Cx43 carboxy tail and the basic transcription factor-3, which drives the translocation of Cx43 tail to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus they form a complex with PolII which directly binds to the N-cadherin promoter. We found that this mechanism is conserved between amphibian and mammalian cells. Given the strong evolutionary conservation of connexins across vertebrates, this may reflect a common mechanism of gene regulation by a protein whose function was previously ascribed only to gap junctional communication.

Christiane Rennert, Sebastian Vlaic, Eugenia Marbach-Breitrück, Carlo Thiel, Susanne Sales, Andrej Shevchenko, Rolf Gebhardt, Madlen Matz-Soja
The Diurnal Timing of Starvation Differently Impacts Murine Hepatic Gene Expression and Lipid Metabolism - A Systems Biology Analysis Using Self-Organizing Maps.
Front Physiol, 9 Art. No. 1180 (2018)
Organisms adapt their metabolism and draw on reserves as a consequence of food deprivation. The central role of the liver in starvation response is to coordinate a sufficient energy supply for the entire organism, which has frequently been investigated. However, knowledge of how circadian rhythms impact on and alter this response is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the influence of different timings of starvation on global hepatic gene expression. Mice (n = 3 each) were challenged with 24-h food deprivation started in the morning or evening, coupled with refeeding for different lengths and compared with ad libitum fed control groups. Alterations in hepatocyte gene expression were quantified using microarrays and confirmed or complemented with qPCR, especially for lowly detectable transcription factors. Analysis was performed using self-organizing maps (SOMs), which bases on clustering genes with similar expression profiles. This provides an intuitive overview of expression trends and allows easier global comparisons between complex conditions. Transcriptome analysis revealed a strong circadian-driven response to fasting based on the diurnal expression of transcription factors (e.g., Ppara, Pparg). Starvation initiated in the morning produced known metabolic adaptations in the liver; e.g., switching from glucose storage to consumption and gluconeogenesis. However, starvation initiated in the evening produced a different expression signature that was controlled by yet unknown regulatory mechanisms. For example, the expression of genes involved in gluconeogenesis decreased and fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis genes were induced. The differential regulation after morning and evening starvation were also reflected at the lipidome level. The accumulation of hepatocellular storage lipids (triacylglycerides, cholesteryl esters) was significantly higher after the initiation of starvation in the morning compared to the evening. Concerning refeeding, the gene expression pattern after a 12 h refeeding period largely resembled that of the corresponding starvation state but approached the ad libitum control state after refeeding for 21 h. Some components of these regulatory circuits are discussed. Collectively, these data illustrate a highly time-dependent starvation response in the liver and suggest that a circadian influence cannot be neglected when starvation is the focus of research or medicine, e.g., in the case of treating victims of sudden starvation events.

Oskar Knittelfelder, Sofia Traikov, Olga Vvedenskaya, Andrea Schuhmann, Sandra Segeletz, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko
Shotgun Lipidomics Combined with Laser Capture Microdissection: A Tool To Analyze Histological Zones in Cryosections of Tissues.
Anal Chem, 90(16) 9868-9878 (2018)
Shotgun analysis provides a quantitative snapshot of the lipidome composition of cells, tissues, or model organisms; however, it does not elucidate the spatial distribution of lipids. Here we demonstrate that shotgun analysis could quantify low-picomole amounts of lipids isolated by laser capture microdissection (LCM) of hundred micrometer-sized histological zones visualized at the cryosections of tissues. We identified metabolically distinct periportal (pp) and pericentral (pc) zones by immunostaining of 20 μm thick cryosections of a healthy mouse liver. LCM was used to ablate, catapult, and collect the tissue material from 10 to 20 individual zones covering a total area of 0.3-0.5 mm2 and containing ca. 500 cells. Top-down shotgun profiling relying upon computational stitching of 61 targeted selective ion monitoring ( t-SIM) spectra quantified more than 200 lipid species from 17 lipid classes including glycero- and glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol esters, and cholesterol. Shotgun LCM revealed the overall commonality of the full lipidome composition of pp and pc zones along with significant ( p < 0.001) difference in the relative abundance of 13 lipid species. Follow-up proteomics analyses of pellets recovered from an aqueous phase saved after the lipid extraction identified 13 known and 7 new protein markers exclusively present in pp or in pc zones and independently validated the specificity of their visualization, isolation, and histological assignment.

Elena Bonzón-Kulichenko, Eduardo Moltó, Cristina Pintado, Alejandro Fernández, Carmen Arribas, Dominik Schwudke, Nilda Gallardo, Andrej Shevchenko, Antonio Andrés
Changes in Visceral Adipose Tissue Plasma Membrane Lipid Composition in Old Rats Are Associated With Adipocyte Hypertrophy With Aging.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 73(9) 1139-1146 (2018)
Increased adiposity, through adipocyte hypertrophy, and/or hyperplasia, characterizes aging and obesity. Both are leptin-resistant states, associated with disturbed lipid metabolism, reduced insulin sensitivity and inflammation. Nevertheless, fat tissue dysfunction appears earlier in obesity than in normal aging. In contrast, lipodystrophy is accompanied by diabetes, and improving the fat cell capacity to expand rescues the diabetic phenotype. Fat tissue dysfunction is extensively studied in the diet-induced obesity, but remains relatively neglected in the aging-associated obesity. In the Wistar rat, as occurs in humans, early or middle aging is accompanied by an increase in adiposity. Using this experimental model, we describe the molecular mechanisms contributing to the white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy. WAT from middle-old age rats is characterized by decreased basal lipogenesis and lipolysis, increased esterification, as demonstrated by the higher TAG and cholesterol content in visceral WAT, and the maintenance of total ceramide levels within normal values. In addition, we describe alterations in the adipose tissue plasma membrane lipid composition, as increased total ether-phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and free cholesterol levels that favor an enlarged fat cell size with aging. All these metabolic changes may be regarded as a survival advantage that prevents the aged rats from becoming overtly diabetic.

Dominic B Bernkopf, Kowcee Jalal, Martina Brückner, Karl X Knaup, Marc Gentzel, Alexandra Schambony, Jürgen Behrens
Pgam5 released from damaged mitochondria induces mitochondrial biogenesis via Wnt signaling.
J Cell Biol, 217(4) 1383-1394 (2018)
Mitochondrial abundance is dynamically regulated and was previously shown to be increased by Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Pgam5 is a mitochondrial phosphatase which is cleaved by the rhomboid protease presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL) and released from membranes after mitochondrial stress. In this study, we show that Pgam5 interacts with the Wnt pathway component axin in the cytosol, blocks axin-mediated β-catenin degradation, and increases β-catenin levels and β-catenin-dependent transcription. Pgam5 stabilized β-catenin by inducing its dephosphorylation in an axin-dependent manner. Mitochondrial stress triggered by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) treatment led to cytosolic release of endogenous Pgam5 and subsequent dephosphorylation of β-catenin, which was strongly diminished in Pgam5 and PARL knockout cells. Similarly, hypoxic stress generated cytosolic Pgam5 and led to stabilization of β-catenin, which was abolished by Pgam5 knockout. Cells stably expressing cytosolic Pgam5 exhibit elevated β-catenin levels and increased mitochondrial numbers. Our study reveals a novel mechanism by which damaged mitochondria might induce replenishment of the mitochondrial pool by cell-intrinsic activation of Wnt signaling via the Pgam5-β-catenin axis.

Patrick Rockenfeller, Martin Smolnig, Jutta Diessl, Mina Bashir, Vera Schmiedhofer, Oskar Knittelfelder, Julia Ring, Joakim Franz, Ines Foessl, M Khan, René Rost, Wolfgang F Graier, Guido Kroemer, Andreas Zimmermann, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Tobias Eisenberg, Sabrina Büttner, Stephan J Sigrist, Ronald P Kühnlein, Sepp D Kohlwein, Campbell W Gourlay, Frank Madeo
Diacylglycerol triggers Rim101 pathway-dependent necrosis in yeast: a model for lipotoxicity.
Cell Death Differ, 25(4) 765-781 (2018)
Open Access DOI
The loss of lipid homeostasis can lead to lipid overload and is associated with a variety of disease states. However, little is known as to how the disruption of lipid regulation or lipid overload affects cell survival. In this study we investigated how excess diacylglycerol (DG), a cardinal metabolite suspected to mediate lipotoxicity, compromises the survival of yeast cells. We reveal that increased DG achieved by either genetic manipulation or pharmacological administration of 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG) triggers necrotic cell death. The toxic effects of DG are linked to glucose metabolism and require a functional Rim101 signaling cascade involving the Rim21-dependent sensing complex and the activation of a calpain-like protease. The Rim101 cascade is an established pathway that triggers a transcriptional response to alkaline or lipid stress. We propose that the Rim101 pathway senses DG-induced lipid perturbation and conducts a signaling response that either facilitates cellular adaptation or triggers lipotoxic cell death. Using established models of lipotoxicity, i.e., high-fat diet in Drosophila and palmitic acid administration in cultured human endothelial cells, we present evidence that the core mechanism underlying this calpain-dependent lipotoxic cell death pathway is phylogenetically conserved.

Santosh Phuyal, Mayes Kasem, Oskar Knittelfelder, Animesh Sharma, Davi de Miranda Fonseca, Vaineta Vebraite, Sergey Shaposhnikov, Geir Slupphaug, Vidar Skaug, Shanbeh Zienolddiny
Characterization of the proteome and lipidome profiles of human lung cells after low dose and chronic exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes.
Nanotoxicology, 12(2) 138-152 (2018)
Open Access DOI
The effects of long-term chronic exposure of human lung cells to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and their impact upon cellular proteins and lipids were investigated. Since the lung is the major target organ, an in vitro normal bronchial epithelial cell line model was used. Additionally, to better mimic exposure to manufactured nanomaterials at occupational settings, cells were continuously exposed to two non-toxic and low doses of a MWCNT for 13-weeks. MWCNT-treatment increased ROS levels in cells without increasing oxidative DNA damage and resulted in differential expression of multiple anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins. The proteomic analysis of the MWCNT-exposed cells showed that among more than 5000 identified proteins; more than 200 were differentially expressed in the treated cells. Functional analyses revealed association of these differentially regulated proteins to cellular processes such as cell death and survival, cellular assembly, and organization. Similarly, shotgun lipidomic profiling revealed accumulation of multiple lipid classes. Our results indicate that long-term MWCNT-exposure of human normal lung cells at occupationally relevant low-doses may alter both the proteome and the lipidome profiles of the target epithelial cells in the lung.

Mukesh Kumar, Shai Joseph, Martina Augsburg, Aliona Bogdanova, David N. Drechsel, Nadine Vastenhouw, Frank Buchholz, Marc Gentzel, Andrej Shevchenko
MS Western, a Method of Multiplexed Absolute Protein Quantification is a Practical Alternative to Western Blotting.
Mol Cell Proteomics, 17(2) 384-396 (2018)
Open Access DOI
Absolute quantification of proteins elucidates the molecular composition, regulation and dynamics of multiprotein assemblies and networks. Here we report on a method termed MS Western that accurately determines the molar abundance of dozens of user-selected proteins at the subfemtomole level in whole cell or tissue lysates without metabolic or chemical labeling and without using specific antibodies. MS Western relies on GeLC-MS/MS and quantifies proteins by in-gel codigestion with an isotopically labeled QconCAT protein chimera composed of concatenated proteotypic peptides. It requires no purification of the chimera and relates the molar abundance of all proteotypic peptides to a single reference protein. In comparative experiments, MS Western outperformed immunofluorescence Western blotting by the protein detection specificity, linear dynamic range and sensitivity of protein quantification. To validate MS Western in an in vivo experiment, we quantified the molar content of zebrafish core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 during ten stages of early embryogenesis. Accurate quantification (CV<10%) corroborated the anticipated histones equimolar stoichiometry and revealed an unexpected trend in their total abundance.

Olga Vvedenskaya, Yuting Wang, Jacobo Miranda Ackerman, Oskar Knittelfelder, Andrej Shevchenko
Analytical challenges in human plasma lipidomics: A winding path towards the truth.
Trends Analyt Chem, 120 Art. No. 115277 (2018)
Human plasma lipidome has been extensively studied in many pathophysiological contexts with the hope of identifying biomarkers for early diagnostics and monitoring the progression and treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. However, despite remarkable progress in lipidomics technologies, the concordance of lipidomics measurements between independent laboratories remains limited and not fulfilling the criteria of common laboratory diagnostics. Here we highlighted a few critical aspects of epidemiological studies of the plasma lipidome, including the selection of study cohorts, collection of plasma samples as well as extraction, identification and quantification of lipids. We argue that reporting the abundances of plasma lipids as molar concentrations is a key turning point during the transition of research lipidomics into a common tool of clinical diagnostics.

Sunyoung Hwang, H Tobias Gustafsson, Ciara O'Sullivan, Gianna Bisceglia, Xinhe Huang, Christian Klose, Andrej Shevchenko, Robert C Dickson, Paola Cavaliere, Noah Dephoure, Eduardo M Torres
Serine-Dependent Sphingolipid Synthesis Is a Metabolic Liability of Aneuploid Cells.
Cell Rep, 21(13) 3807-3818 (2017)
Open Access DOI
Aneuploidy disrupts cellular homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological responses and adaptation to aneuploidy are not well understood. Deciphering these mechanisms is important because aneuploidy is associated with diseases, including intellectual disability and cancer. Although tumors and mammalian aneuploid cells, including several cancer cell lines, show altered levels of sphingolipids, the role of sphingolipids in aneuploidy remains unknown. Here, we show that ceramides and long-chain bases, sphingolipid molecules that slow proliferation and promote survival, are increased by aneuploidy. Sphingolipid levels are tightly linked to serine synthesis, and inhibiting either serine or sphingolipid synthesis can specifically impair the fitness of aneuploid cells. Remarkably, the fitness of aneuploid cells improves or deteriorates upon genetically decreasing or increasing ceramides, respectively. Combined targeting of serine and sphingolipid synthesis could be exploited to specifically target cancer cells, the vast majority of which are aneuploid.

Kai Schuhmann, Kristina Srzentić, Konstantin O Nagornov, Henrik Thomas, Theresia Gutmann, Ünal Coskun, Yury O Tsybin, Andrej Shevchenko
Monitoring Membrane Lipidome Turnover by Metabolic 15N Labeling and Shotgun Ultra-High-Resolution Orbitrap Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.
Anal Chem, 89(23) 12857-12865 (2017)
Lipidomes undergo permanent extensive remodeling, but how the turnover rate differs between lipid classes and molecular species is poorly understood. We employed metabolic 15N labeling and shotgun ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (sUHR) to quantify the absolute (molar) abundance and determine the turnover rate of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids by direct analysis of total lipid extracts. sUHR performed on a commercial Orbitrap Elite instrument at the mass resolution of 1.35 × 106 (m/z 200) baseline resolved peaks of 13C isotopes of unlabeled and monoisotopic peaks of 15N labeled lipids (Δm = 0.0063 Da). Therefore, the rate of metabolic 15N labeling of individual lipid species could be determined without compromising the scope, accuracy, and dynamic range of full-lipidome quantitative shotgun profiling. As a proof of concept, we employed sUHR to determine the lipidome composition and fluxes of 62 nitrogen-containing membrane lipids in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

John A Bowden, Alan Heckert, Candice Z Ulmer, Christina M Jones, Jeremy P Koelmel, Laila Abdullah, Linda Ahonen, Yazen Alnouti, Aaron Armando, John M Asara, Takeshi Bamba, John R Barr, Jonas Bergquist, Christoph H Borchers, Joost Brandsma, Susanne B Breitkopf, Tomas Cajka, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Antonio Checa, Michelle A Cinel, Romain A Colas, Serge Cremers, Edward A Dennis, James E Evans, Alexander Fauland, Oliver Fiehn, Michael S Gardner, Timothy J Garrett, Katherine H Gotlinger, Jun Han, Yingying Huang, Aveline Huipeng Neo, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Yoshihiro Izumi, Hongfeng Jiang, Houli Jiang, Jiang Jiang, Maureen Kachman, Reiko Kiyonami, Kristaps Klavins, Christian Klose, Harald C Köfeler, Johan Kolmert, Therese Koal, Grielof Koster, Zsuzsanna Kuklenyik, Irwin J Kurland, Michael Leadley, Karen Lin, Krishna Rao Maddipati, Danielle McDougall, Peter J Meikle, Natalie A Mellett, Cian Monnin, M Arthur Moseley, Renu Nandakumar, Matej Oresic, Rainey Patterson, David Peake, Jason S Pierce, Martin Post, Anthony D Postle, Rebecca Pugh, Yunping Qiu, Oswald Quehenberger, Parsram Ramrup, Jon Rees, Barbara Rembiesa, Denis Reynaud, Mary R Roth, Susanne Sales, Kai Schuhmann, Michal Laniado Schwartzman, Charles N Serhan, Andrej Shevchenko, Stephen E Somerville, Lisa St John-Williams, Michal Surma, Hiroyuki Takeda, Rhishikesh Thakare, J Will Thompson, Federico Torta, Alexander Triebl, Martin Trötzmüller, S J Kumari Ubhayasekera, Dajana Vuckovic, Jacquelyn M Weir, Ruth Welti, Markus R Wenk, Craig E Wheelock, Libin Yao, Min Yuan, Xueqing Heather Zhao, Senlin Zhou
Harmonizing lipidomics: NIST interlaboratory comparison exercise for lipidomics using SRM 1950-Metabolites in Frozen Human Plasma.
J Lipid Res, 58(12) 2275-2288 (2017)
As the lipidomics field continues to advance, self-evaluation within the community is critical. Here, we performed an interlaboratory comparison exercise for lipidomics using Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1950-Metabolites in Frozen Human Plasma, a commercially available reference material. The interlaboratory study comprised 31 diverse laboratories, with each laboratory using a different lipidomics workflow. A total of 1,527 unique lipids were measured across all laboratories and consensus location estimates and associated uncertainties were determined for 339 of these lipids measured at the sum composition level by five or more participating laboratories. These evaluated lipids detected in SRM 1950 serve as community-wide benchmarks for intra- and interlaboratory quality control and method validation. These analyses were performed using nonstandardized laboratory-independent workflows. The consensus locations were also compared with a previous examination of SRM 1950 by the LIPID MAPS consortium. While the central theme of the interlaboratory study was to provide values to help harmonize lipids, lipid mediators, and precursor measurements across the community, it was also initiated to stimulate a discussion regarding areas in need of improvement.

Dominik Schwudke, Andrej Shevchenko, N Hoffmann, R Ahrends
Lipidomics informatics for life-science.
J Biotechnol, 261 131-136 (2017)
Lipidomics encompasses analytical approaches that aim to identify and quantify the complete set of lipids, defined as lipidome in a given cell, tissue or organism as well as their interactions with other molecules. The majority of lipidomics workflows is based on mass spectrometry and has been proven as a powerful tool in system biology in concert with other Omics disciplines. Unfortunately, bioinformatics infrastructures for this relatively young discipline are limited only to some specialists. Search engines, quantification algorithms, visualization tools and databases developed by the 'Lipidomics Informatics for Life-Science' (LIFS) partners will be restructured and standardized to provide broad access to these specialized bioinformatics pipelines. There are many medical challenges related to lipid metabolic alterations that will be fostered by capacity building suggested by LIFS. LIFS as member of the 'German Network for Bioinformatics' (de.NBI) node for 'Bioinformatics for Proteomics' (BioInfra.Prot) and will provide access to the described software as well as to tutorials and consulting services via a unified web-portal.

Mihaela Anitei, Christoph Stange, Cornelia Czupalla, Christian Niehage, Kai Schuhmann, Pia Sala, Aleksander Czogalla, Theresia Pursche, Ünal Coskun, Andrej Shevchenko, Bernard Hoflack
Spatiotemporal Control of Lipid Conversion, Actin-Based Mechanical Forces, and Curvature Sensors during Clathrin/AP-1-Coated Vesicle Biogenesis.
Cell Rep, 20(9) 2087-2099 (2017)
Open Access DOI
Clathrin/adaptor protein-1-coated carriers connect the secretory and the endocytic pathways. Carrier biogenesis relies on distinct protein networks changing membrane shape at the trans-Golgi network, each regulating coat assembly, F-actin-based mechanical forces, or the biophysical properties of lipid bilayers. How these different hubs are spatiotemporally coordinated remains largely unknown. Using in vitro reconstitution systems, quantitative proteomics, and lipidomics, as well as in vivo cell-based assays, we characterize the protein networks controlling membrane lipid composition, membrane shape, and carrier scission. These include PIP5K1A and phospholipase C-beta 3 controlling the conversion of PI[4]P into diacylglycerol. PIP5K1A binding to RAC1 provides a link to F-actin-based mechanical forces needed to tubulate membranes. Tubular membranes then recruit the BAR-domain-containing arfaptin-1/2 guiding carrier scission. These findings provide a framework for synchronizing the chemical/biophysical properties of lipid bilayers, F-actin-based mechanical forces, and the activity of proteins sensing membrane shape during clathrin/adaptor protein-1-coated carrier biogenesis.

Kai Schuhmann, Henrik Thomas, Jacobo Miranda Ackerman, Konstantin O Nagornov, Yury O Tsybin, Andrej Shevchenko
Intensity-Independent Noise Filtering in FT MS and FT MS/MS Spectra for Shotgun Lipidomics.
Anal Chem, 89(13) 7046-7052 (2017)
Shotgun lipidomics relies on the direct infusion of total lipid extracts into a high resolution tandem mass spectrometer. A single shotgun analysis produces several hundred of densely populated FT MS and FT MS/MS spectra, each of which might comprise thousands of peaks although a very small percentage of those belong to lipids. Eliminating noise by adjusting a minimal peak intensity threshold is biased and inefficient since lipid species and classes vary in their natural abundance and ionization capacity. We developed a method of peak intensity-independent noise filtering in shotgun FT MS and FT MS/MS spectra that capitalizes on a stable composition of the infused analyte leading to consistent time-independent detection of its bona fide components. Repetition rate filtering relies on a single quantitative measure of peaks detection reproducibility irrespectively of their absolute intensities, masses, or assumed elemental compositions. In comparative experiments, it removed more than 95% of signals detectable in shotgun spectra without compromising the accuracy and scope of lipid identification and quantification. It also accelerated spectra processing by 15-fold and increased the number of simultaneously processed spectra by ∼500-fold hence eliminating the major bottleneck in high-throughput bottom-up shotgun lipidomics.

Verena Rauschenberger, Dominic B Bernkopf, Sabrina Krenn, Kowcee Jalal, Jens Heller, Jürgen Behrens, Marc Gentzel, Alexandra Schambony
The phosphatase Pgam5 antagonizes Wnt/β-Catenin signaling in embryonic anterior-posterior axis patterning.
Development, 144(12) 2234-2247 (2017)
The scaffold protein Dishevelled is a central intracellular component of Wnt signaling pathways. Various kinases have been described that regulate and modulate Wnt signaling through phosphorylation of Dishevelled. However, besides general protein phosphatases 1 and 2 (PP1 and PP2), no specific protein phosphatases have been identified. Here, we report on the identification and functional characterization of the protein phosphatase Pgam5 in vitro and in vivo in Xenopus Pgam5 is a novel antagonist of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling in human cells and Xenopus embryogenesis. In early development, Pgam5 is essential for head formation, and for establishing and maintaining the Wnt/β-Catenin signaling gradient that patterns the anterior-posterior body axis. Inhibition of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling and developmental function depend on Pgam5 phosphatase activity. We show that Pgam5 interacts with Dishevelled2 and that Dishevelled2 is a substrate of Pgam5. Pgam5 mediates a marked decrease in Dishevelled2 phosphorylation in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, as well as decreased interaction between Dishevelled2, Tcf1 and β-Catenin, indicating that Pgam5 regulates Dishevelled function upstream and downstream of β-Catenin stabilization.

Carlos Ocaña-Morgner, Susanne Sales, Manuela Rothe, Andrej Shevchenko, Rolf Jessberger
Tolerogenic versus Immunogenic Lipidomic Profiles of CD11c(+) Immune Cells and Control of Immunogenic Dendritic Cell Ceramide Dynamics.
J Immunol, 198(11) 4360-4372 (2017)
Lipids affect the membrane properties determining essential biological processes. Earlier studies have suggested a role of switch-activated protein 70 (SWAP-70) in lipid raft formation of dendritic cells. We used lipidomics combined with genetic and biochemical assays to analyze the role of SWAP-70 in lipid dynamics. TLR activation using LPS as a ligand represented a pathogenic immunogenic stimulus, physical disruption of cell-cell contacts a tolerogenic stimulus. Physical disruption, but not LPS, caused an increase of phosphatidylcholine ether and cholesteryl esters in CD11c(+) immune cells. An increase of ceramide (Cer) was a hallmark for LPS activation. SWAP-70 was required for regulating the increase and localization of Cers in the cell membrane. SWAP-70 controls Cer accumulation through the regulation of pH-dependent acid-sphingomyelinase activity and of RhoA-dependent transport of endosomal contents to the plasma membrane. Poor accumulation of Cers in Swap70(-/-) cells caused decreased apoptosis. This shows that two different pathways of activation, immunogenic and tolerogenic, induce different changes in the lipid composition of cultured CD11c(+) cells, and highlights the important role of SWAP-70 in Cer dynamics in dendritic cells.

Julia Sellin, Heike Schulze, Marie Paradis, Dominic Gosejacob, Cyrus Papan, Andrej Shevchenko, Olympia Ekaterina Psathaki, Achim Paululat, Melanie Thielisch, Konrad Sandhoff, Michael Hoch
Characterization of Drosophila Saposin-related mutants as a model for lysosomal sphingolipid storage diseases.
Dis Model Mech, 10(6) 737-750 (2017)
Sphingolipidoses are inherited diseases belonging to the class of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), which are characterized by the accumulation of indigestible material in the lysosome caused by specific defects in the lysosomal degradation machinery. While some LSDs can be efficiently treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), this is not possible if the nervous system is affected due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier. Sphingolipidoses in particular often present as severe, untreatable forms of LSDs with massive sphingolipid and membrane accumulation in lysosomes, neurodegeneration and very short life expectancy. The digestion of intralumenal membranes within lysosomes is facilitated by lysosomal sphingolipid activator proteins (saposins), which are cleaved from a prosaposin precursor. Prosaposin mutations cause some of the severest forms of sphingolipidoses, and are associated with perinatal lethality in mice, hampering studies on disease progression. We identify the Drosophila prosaposin orthologue Saposin-related (Sap-r) as a key regulator of lysosomal lipid homeostasis in the fly. Its mutation leads to a typical spingolipidosis phenotype with an enlarged endolysosomal compartment and sphingolipid accumulation as shown by mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography. Sap-r mutants show reduced viability with ∼50% survival to adulthood, allowing us to study progressive neurodegeneration and analyze their lipid profile in young and aged flies. Additionally, we observe a defect in sterol homeostasis with local sterol depletion at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, we find that autophagy is increased, resulting in the accumulation of mitochondria in lysosomes, concomitant with increased oxidative stress. Together, we establish Drosophila Sap-r mutants as a lysosomal storage disease model suitable for studying the age-dependent progression of lysosomal dysfunction associated with lipid accumulation and the resulting pathological signaling events.

Mesut Bilgin, Andrej Shevchenko
Quantification of endogenous endocannabinoids by LC-MS/MS
In: Lipidomics. (Eds.) Paul Wood (Neuromethods ; 125).,New York,Springer (2017),99-107 Ch. 7
Here, we describe the LC-MS/MS quantification of 46 molecules representing five major classes of endogenous endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds in human blood serum and its lipoprotein fractions.

Shai Joseph, Máté Pálfy, Lennart Hilbert, Mukesh Kumar, Jens Karschau, Vasily Zaburdaev, Andrej Shevchenko, Nadine Vastenhouw
Competition between histone and transcription factor binding regulates the onset of transcription in zebrafish embryos.
Elife, 6 Art. No. e23326 (2017)
Open Access DOI
Upon fertilization, the genome of animal embryos remains transcriptionally inactive until the maternal-to-zygotic transition. At this time, the embryo takes control of its development and transcription begins. How the onset of zygotic transcription is regulated remains unclear. Here, we show that a dynamic competition for DNA binding between nucleosome-forming histones and transcription factors regulates zebrafish genome activation. Taking a quantitative approach, we found that the concentration of non-DNA bound core histones sets the time for the onset of transcription. The reduction in nuclear histone concentration that coincides with genome activation does not affect nucleosome density on DNA, but allows transcription factors to compete successfully for DNA binding. In agreement with this, transcription factor binding is sensitive to histone levels and the concentration of transcription factors also affects the time of transcription. Our results demonstrate that the relative levels of histones and transcription factors regulate the onset of transcription in the embryo.

Ines Wagner✳︎, Heng Wang, Philipp M Weissert, Werner L Straube✳︎, Anna Shevchenko, Marc Gentzel, Goncalo Brito, Akira Tazaki, Catarina Oliveira, Takuji Sugiura, Andrej Shevchenko, András Simon, David N. Drechsel, Elly M. Tanaka
Serum Proteases Potentiate BMP-Induced Cell Cycle Re-entry of Dedifferentiating Muscle Cells during Newt Limb Regeneration.
Dev Cell, 40(6) 608-617 (2017)
Limb amputation in the newt induces myofibers to dedifferentiate and re-enter the cell cycle to generate proliferative myogenic precursors in the regeneration blastema. Here we show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and mature BMPs that have been further cleaved by serum proteases induce cell cycle entry by dedifferentiating newt muscle cells. Protease-activated BMP4/7 heterodimers that are present in serum strongly induced myotube cell cycle re-entry with protease cleavage yielding a 30-fold potency increase of BMP4/7 compared with canonical BMP4/7. Inhibition of BMP signaling via muscle-specific dominant-negative receptor expression reduced cell cycle entry in vitro and in vivo. In vivo inhibition of serine protease activity depressed cell cycle re-entry, which in turn was rescued by cleaved-mimic BMP. This work identifies a mechanism of BMP activation that generates blastema cells from differentiated muscle.

Sara Ciucci, Yan Ge, Claudio Durán, Alessandra Palladini, Víctor Jiménez-Jiménez, Luisa María Martínez-Sánchez, Yuting Wang, Susanne Sales, Andrej Shevchenko, Steven W Poser, Maik Herbig, Oliver Otto, Andreas Androutsellis-Theotokis, Jochen Guck, Mathias J. Gerl, Carlo Vittorio Cannistraci
Enlightening discriminative network functional modules behind Principal Component Analysis separation in differential-omic science studies.
Sci Rep, 7 Art. No. 43946 (2017)
Open Access PDF DOI
Omic science is rapidly growing and one of the most employed techniques to explore differential patterns in omic datasets is principal component analysis (PCA). However, a method to enlighten the network of omic features that mostly contribute to the sample separation obtained by PCA is missing. An alternative is to build correlation networks between univariately-selected significant omic features, but this neglects the multivariate unsupervised feature compression responsible for the PCA sample segregation. Biologists and medical researchers often prefer effective methods that offer an immediate interpretation to complicated algorithms that in principle promise an improvement but in practice are difficult to be applied and interpreted. Here we present PC-corr: a simple algorithm that associates to any PCA segregation a discriminative network of features. Such network can be inspected in search of functional modules useful in the definition of combinatorial and multiscale biomarkers from multifaceted omic data in systems and precision biomedicine. We offer proofs of PC-corr efficacy on lipidomic, metagenomic, developmental genomic, population genetic, cancer promoteromic and cancer stem-cell mechanomic data. Finally, PC-corr is a general functional network inference approach that can be easily adopted for big data exploration in computer science and analysis of complex systems in physics.

Anna Shevchenko✳︎, Yimin Yang✳︎, Andrea Knaust, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Huijuan Mai, Bo Wang, Changsui Wang, Andrej Shevchenko
Open sesame: Identification of sesame oil and oil soot ink in organic deposits of Tang Dynasty lamps from Astana necropolis in China.
PLoS ONE, 12(2) Art. No. e0158636 (2017)
Lamp illuminants evidence the exploitation of natural resources, animal and plant domestication, commerce, religious practices and nutrition of ancient populations. However, the physicochemical analysis of their major constituent-burned, degraded and aged mixture of triacylglycerols is imprecise and may lead to ambiguous interpretations. We applied proteomics to analyze fuel deposits from eight lamps dated by 6th to 8th centuries AD that were excavated at the Astana necropolis (Xinjiang, China) and determined their origin by identifying organism-specific proteins. Proteomics evidence corroborated and detailed the assignments of source organism relying upon comparative profiling of intact triacylglycerols by shotgun lipidomics. We found that ruminant (mostly, sheep) fat, cattle ghee and sesame oil were common combustibles in Astana and concluded that sesame as an oilseed appeared in China under Tang Dynasty concomitantly with the expansion of Buddhism.

Susanne Sales, Oskar Knittelfelder, Andrej Shevchenko
Lipidomics of Human Blood Plasma by High-Resolution Shotgun Mass Spectrometry.
Methods Mol Biol, 1619 203-212 (2017)
Clinical lipidomics is an emerging biomarker discovery approach that compares lipid profiles under pathologically and physiologically normal conditions. Here we describe a method for the absolute (molar) quantification of more than 200 molecules from 14 major lipid classes from 5 μL of human blood plasma using high-resolution top-down shotgun mass spectrometry. Because of its technical simplicity and robustness, the protocol lends itself for high-throughput clinical lipidomics screens.

Mingsi Xie, Anna Shevchenko, Binghua Wang, Andrej Shevchenko, Changsui Wang, Yimin Yang
Identification of a dairy product in the grass woven basket from Gumugou Cemetery (3800 BP, northwestern China)
Quat Int, 426 158-165 (2016)

S Kopprasch, Srirangan Dheban, Kai Schuhmann, Aimin Xu, K-M Schulte, Charmaine J Simeonovic, Peter E H Schwarz, Stefan Bornstein, Andrej Shevchenko, Juergen Graessler
Detection of Independent Associations of Plasma Lipidomic Parameters with Insulin Sensitivity Indices Using Data Mining Methodology.
PLoS ONE, 11(10) Art. No. e0164173 (2016)
Open Access DOI
Glucolipotoxicity is a major pathophysiological mechanism in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We aimed to detect subtle changes in the circulating lipid profile by shotgun lipidomics analyses and to associate them with four different insulin sensitivity indices.

Yin Ning Chiang, Kah Junn Tan, Henry Chung, Oksana Lavrynenko, Andrej Shevchenko, Joanne Y Yew
Steroid Hormone Signaling Is Essential for Pheromone Production and Oenocyte Survival.
PLoS Genet, 12(6) Art. No. e1006126 (2016)
Open Access PDF DOI
Many of the lipids found on the cuticles of insects function as pheromones and communicate information about age, sex, and reproductive status. In Drosophila, the composition of the information-rich lipid profile is dynamic and changes over the lifetime of an individual. However, the molecular basis of this change is not well understood. To identify genes that control cuticular lipid production in Drosophila, we performed a RNA interference screen and used Direct Analysis in Real Time and gas chromatography mass spectrometry to quantify changes in the chemical profiles. Twelve putative genes were identified whereby transcriptional silencing led to significant differences in cuticular lipid production. Amongst them, we characterized a gene which we name spidey, and which encodes a putative steroid dehydrogenase that has sex- and age-dependent effects on viability, pheromone production, and oenocyte survival. Transcriptional silencing or overexpression of spidey during embryonic development results in pupal lethality and significant changes in levels of the ecdysone metabolite 20-hydroxyecdysonic acid and 20-hydroxyecdysone. In contrast, inhibiting gene expression only during adulthood resulted in a striking loss of oenocyte cells and a concomitant reduction of cuticular hydrocarbons, desiccation resistance, and lifespan. Oenocyte loss and cuticular lipid levels were partially rescued by 20-hydroxyecdysone supplementation. Taken together, these results identify a novel regulator of pheromone synthesis and reveal that ecdysteroid signaling is essential for the maintenance of cuticular lipids and oenocytes throughout adulthood.

Alexander Kotzsch, Damian Pawolski, Alexander Milentyev, Anna Shevchenko, André Scheffel, Nicole Poulsen, Andrej Shevchenko, Nils Kröger
Biochemical Composition and Assembly of Biosilica-associated Insoluble Organic Matrices from the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.
J Biol Chem, 291(10) 4982-4997 (2016)
The nano- and micropatterned biosilica cell walls of diatoms are remarkable examples of biological morphogenesis and possess highly interesting material properties. Only recently has it been demonstrated that biosilica-associated organic structures with specific nanopatterns (termed insoluble organic matrices) are general components of diatom biosilica. The model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana contains three types of insoluble organic matrices: chitin meshworks, organic microrings, and organic microplates, the latter being described in the present study for the first time. To date, little is known about the molecular composition, intracellular assembly, and biological functions of organic matrices. Here we have performed structural and functional analyses of the organic microrings and organic microplates from T. pseudonana. Proteomics analysis yielded seven proteins of unknown function (termed SiMat proteins) together with five known silica biomineralization proteins (four cingulins and one silaffin). The location of SiMat1-GFP in the insoluble organic microrings and the similarity of tyrosine- and lysine-rich functional domains identifies this protein as a new member of the cingulin protein family. Mass spectrometric analysis indicates that most of the lysine residues of cingulins and the other insoluble organic matrix proteins are post-translationally modified by short polyamine groups, which are known to enhance the silica formation activity of proteins. Studies with recombinant cingulins (rCinY2 and rCinW2) demonstrate that acidic conditions (pH 5.5) trigger the assembly of mixed cingulin aggregates that have silica formation activity. Our results suggest an important role for cingulins in the biogenesis of organic microrings and support the hypothesis that this type of insoluble organic matrix functions in biosilica morphogenesis.

Sophie Ayciriex, Hermeto Gerber, Guillermo M Garcia Osuna, Mohamed Chami, Henning Stahlberg, Andrej Shevchenko, Patrick C Fraering
The lipidome associated with the γ-secretase complex is required for its integrity and activity.
Biochem J, 473(3) 321-334 (2016)
γ-Secretase is a multi-subunit membrane protease complex that catalyses the final intramembrane cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) during the neuronal production of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), which are implicated as the causative agents of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we report the reconstitution of a highly purified, active γ-secretase complex into proteoliposomes without exogenous lipids and provide the first direct evidence for the existence of a microenvironment of 53 molecular species from 11 major lipid classes specifically associated with the γ-secretase complex, including phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Importantly, we demonstrate that the pharmacological modulation of certain phospholipids abolishes both the integrity and the enzymatic activity of the intramembrane protease. Together, our findings highlight the importance of a specific lipid microenvironment for the structure and function of γ-secretase.

Mesut Bilgin, Petra Born, Filomena Fezza, Michael Heimes, Nicolina Mastrangelo, Nicolai Wagner, Carsten Schultz, Mauro Maccarrone, Suzanne Eaton, André Nadler, Matthias Wilm, Andrej Shevchenko
Lipid Discovery by Combinatorial Screening and Untargeted LC-MS/MS.
Sci Rep, 6 Art. No. 27920 (2016)
Open Access PDF DOI
We present a method for the systematic identification of picogram quantities of new lipids in total extracts of tissues and fluids. It relies on the modularity of lipid structures and applies all-ions fragmentation LC-MS/MS and Arcadiate software to recognize individual modules originating from the same lipid precursor of known or assumed structure. In this way it alleviates the need to recognize and fragment very low abundant precursors of novel molecules in complex lipid extracts. In a single analysis of rat kidney extract the method identified 58 known and discovered 74 novel endogenous endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related molecules, including a novel class of N-acylaspartates that inhibit Hedgehog signaling while having no impact on endocannabinoid receptors.

Susanne Sales, Juergen Graessler, Sara Ciucci, Rania Al-Atrib, Terhi Vihervaara, Kai Schuhmann, Dimple Kauhanen, Marko Sysi-Aho, Stefan Bornstein, Marc Bickle, Carlo Vittorio Cannistraci, Kim Ekroos, Andrej Shevchenko
Gender, Contraceptives and Individual Metabolic Predisposition Shape a Healthy Plasma Lipidome.
Sci Rep, 6 Art. No. 27710 (2016)
Open Access PDF DOI
Lipidomics of human blood plasma is an emerging biomarker discovery approach that compares lipid profiles under pathological and physiologically normal conditions, but how a healthy lipidome varies within the population is poorly understood. By quantifying 281 molecular species from 27 major lipid classes in the plasma of 71 healthy young Caucasians whose 35 clinical blood test and anthropometric indices matched the medical norm, we provided a comprehensive, expandable and clinically relevant resource of reference molar concentrations of individual lipids. We established that gender is a major lipidomic factor, whose impact is strongly enhanced by hormonal contraceptives and mediated by sex hormone-binding globulin. In lipidomics epidemiological studies should avoid mixed-gender cohorts and females taking hormonal contraceptives should be considered as a separate sub-cohort. Within a gender-restricted cohort lipidomics revealed a compositional signature that indicates the predisposition towards an early development of metabolic syndrome in ca. 25% of healthy male individuals suggesting a healthy plasma lipidome as resource for early biomarker discovery.

Sarita Hebbar, Ishtapran Sahoo, Artur Matysik, Irene Argudo Garcia, Kathleen Amy Osborne, Cyrus Papan, Federico Torta, Pradeep Narayanaswamy, Xiu Hui Fun, Markus R Wenk, Andrej Shevchenko, Dominik Schwudke, Rachel Kraut
Ceramides And Stress Signalling Intersect With Autophagic Defects In Neurodegenerative Drosophila blue cheese (bchs) Mutants.
Sci Rep, 5 Art. No. 15926 (2015)
Open Access PDF DOI
Sphingolipid metabolites are involved in the regulation of autophagy, a degradative recycling process that is required to prevent neuronal degeneration. Drosophila blue cheese mutants neurodegenerate due to perturbations in autophagic flux, and consequent accumulation of ubiquitinated aggregates. Here, we demonstrate that blue cheese mutant brains exhibit an elevation in total ceramide levels; surprisingly, however, degeneration is ameliorated when the pool of available ceramides is further increased, and exacerbated when ceramide levels are decreased by altering sphingolipid catabolism or blocking de novo synthesis. Exogenous ceramide is seen to accumulate in autophagosomes, which are fewer in number and show less efficient clearance in blue cheese mutant neurons. Sphingolipid metabolism is also shifted away from salvage toward de novo pathways, while pro-growth Akt and MAP pathways are down-regulated, and ER stress is increased. All these defects are reversed under genetic rescue conditions that increase ceramide generation from salvage pathways. This constellation of effects suggests a possible mechanism whereby the observed deficit in a potentially ceramide-releasing autophagic pathway impedes survival signaling and exacerbates neuronal death.

Oksana Lavrynenko, Jonathan Rodenfels, Maria Carvalho, Natalie Dye, Rene Lafont, Suzanne Eaton, Andrej Shevchenko
The ecdysteroidome of Drosophila: influence of diet and development.
Development, 142(21) 3758-3768 (2015)
Ecdysteroids are the hormones regulating development, physiology and fertility in arthropods, which synthesize them exclusively from dietary sterols. But how dietary sterol diversity influences the ecdysteroid profile, how animals ensure the production of desired hormones and whether there are functional differences between different ecdysteroids produced in vivo remains unknown. This is because currently there is no analytical technology for unbiased, comprehensive and quantitative assessment of the full complement of endogenous ecdysteroids. We developed a new LC-MS/MS method to screen the entire chemical space of ecdysteroid-related structures and to quantify known and newly discovered hormones and their catabolites. We quantified the ecdysteroidome in Drosophila melanogaster and investigated how the ecdysteroid profile varies with diet and development. We show that Drosophila can produce four different classes of ecdysteroids, which are obligatorily derived from four types of dietary sterol precursors. Drosophila makes makisterone A from plant sterols and epi-makisterone A from ergosterol, the major yeast sterol. However, they prefer to selectively utilize scarce ergosterol precursors to make a novel hormone 24,28-dehydromakisterone A and trace cholesterol to synthesize 20-hydroxyecdysone. Interestingly, epi-makisterone A supports only larval development, whereas all other ecdysteroids allow full adult development. We suggest that evolutionary pressure against producing epi-C-24 ecdysteroids might explain selective utilization of ergosterol precursors and the puzzling preference for cholesterol.

James Sáenz, Daniel Grosser, Alexander S Bradley, Thibaut Lagny, Oksana Lavrynenko, Martyna Broda, Kai Simons
Hopanoids as functional analogues of cholesterol in bacterial membranes.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A., 112(38) 11971-11976 (2015)
The functionality of cellular membranes relies on the molecular order imparted by lipids. In eukaryotes, sterols such as cholesterol modulate membrane order, yet they are not typically found in prokaryotes. The structurally similar bacterial hopanoids exhibit similar ordering properties as sterols in vitro, but their exact physiological role in living bacteria is relatively uncharted. We present evidence that hopanoids interact with glycolipids in bacterial outer membranes to form a highly ordered bilayer in a manner analogous to the interaction of sterols with sphingolipids in eukaryotic plasma membranes. Furthermore, multidrug transport is impaired in a hopanoid-deficient mutant of the gram-negative Methylobacterium extorquens, which introduces a link between membrane order and an energy-dependent, membrane-associated function in prokaryotes. Thus, we reveal a convergence in the architecture of bacterial and eukaryotic membranes and implicate the biosynthetic pathways of hopanoids and other order-modulating lipids as potential targets to fight pathogenic multidrug resistance.

Jan Böttger, Katrin Arnold, Carlo Thiel, Christiane Rennert, Susanne Aleithe, Ute Hofmann, Sebastian Vlaic, Susanne Sales, Andrej Shevchenko, Madlen Matz-Soja
RNAi in murine hepatocytes: the agony of choice-a study of the influence of lipid-based transfection reagents on hepatocyte metabolism.
Arch Toxicol, 89(9) 1579-1588 (2015)
Primary hepatocyte cell cultures are widely used for studying hepatic diseases with alterations in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism, such as diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) provide a potent and specific tool to elucidate the signaling pathways and gene functions involved in these pathologies. Although RNA interference (RNAi) in vitro is frequently used in these investigations, the metabolic alterations elucidated by different siRNA delivery strategies have hardly been investigated in transfected hepatocytes. To elucidate the influence of the most commonly used lipid-based transfection reagents on cultured primary hepatocytes, we studied the cytotoxic effects and transfection efficiencies of INTERFERin(®), Lipofectamine(®)RNAiMAX, and HiPerFect(®). All of these transfection agents displayed low cytotoxicity (5.6-9.0 ± 1.3-3.4 %), normal cell viability, and high transfection efficiency (fold change 0.08-0.13 ± 0.03-0.05), and they also favored the satisfactory down-regulation of target gene expression. However, when effects on the metabolome and lipidome were studied, considerable differences were observed among the transfection reagents. Cellular triacylglycerides levels were either up- or down-regulated [maximum fold change: INTERFERin(®) (48 h) 2.55 ± 0.34, HiPerFect(®) (24 h) 0.79 ± 0.08, Lipofectamine(®)RNAiMAX (48 h) 1.48 ± 0.21], and mRNA levels of genes associated with lipid metabolism were differentially affected. Likewise, metabolic functions such as amino acid utilization from were perturbed (alanine, arginine, glycine, ornithine, and pyruvate). In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the choice of non-viral siRNA delivery agent is critical in hepatocytes. This should be remembered, especially if RNA silencing is used for studying hepatic lipid homeostasis and its regulation.

Mesut Bilgin, Laura Bindila, Juergen Graessler, Andrej Shevchenko
Quantitative profiling of endocannabinoids in lipoproteins by LC-MS/MS.
Anal Bioanal Chem, 407(17) 5125-5131 (2015)
Endocannabinoids belong to a diverse family of endogenous lipid bioregulators acting as physiological ligands of cannabinoid receptor type 1 and cannabinoid receptor type 2 in the central and peripheral nervous system. They are also present in nmol L(-1) concentrations in human blood plasma; however, their association with possible molecular carriers remains poorly characterized. Here we report on the quantification of 46 endogenous molecular species from five major classes of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds in three lipoprotein fractions of human blood plasma: VLDL, LDL, HDL, and in the plasma lipoprotein-free fraction. Although sizable quantities of endocannabinoid-related molecules are associated with lipoproteins, we identified the lipoprotein-free fraction as a major carrier of endocannabinoids in blood circulation with the exception of 2-acylglycerols, which are markedly abundant in VLDL.

Anja Zeigerer, Roman L Bogorad, Kirti Sharma, Jerome Gilleron, Sarah Seifert, Susanne Sales, Nikolaus Berndt, Sascha Bulik, Giovanni Marsico, Rochelle C J D'Souza, Naharajan Lakshmanaperumal, Kesavan Meganathan, Karthick Natarajan, Agapios Sachinidis, Andreas Dahl, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Andrej Shevchenko, Matthias Mann, Victor Koteliansky, Marino Zerial
Regulation of Liver Metabolism by the Endosomal GTPase Rab5.
Cell Rep, 11(6) 884-892 (2015)
Open Access DOI
The liver maintains glucose and lipid homeostasis by adapting its metabolic activity to the energy needs of the organism. Communication between hepatocytes and extracellular environment via endocytosis is key to such homeostasis. Here, we addressed the question of whether endosomes are required for gluconeogenic gene expression. We took advantage of the loss of endosomes in the mouse liver upon Rab5 silencing. Strikingly, we found hepatomegaly and severe metabolic defects such as hypoglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, and glycogen accumulation that phenocopied those found in von Gierke's disease, a glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency. G6Pase deficiency alone can account for the reduction in hepatic glucose output and glycogen accumulation as determined by mathematical modeling. Interestingly, we uncovered functional alterations in the transcription factors, which regulate G6Pase expression. Our data highlight a requirement of Rab5 and the endosomal system for the regulation of gluconeogenic gene expression that has important implications for metabolic diseases.

Juergen Graessler, Kai Schuhmann, Andrej Shevchenko, S Kopprasch, Ryan Ban, S Bergmann, Stefan Bornstein, Bernd Hohenstein, U Julius
Increasing plasma lysophosphatidylcholine levels in patients with regular dextran sulfate lipoprotein apheresis.
Atheroscler Suppl, 18 170-175 (2015)
Previously we found a highly significant increase of phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) in response to acute lipoprotein apheresis (LA) with whole blood dextran sulfate adsorption (DSA) in contrast to the overall tendency of reduction of lipid metabolites of all lipid classes in post-apheresis plasma. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze long-term modifications of the plasma lipidomic profile in patients with repeated DSA apheresis.

Helena Khaliullina, Mesut Bilgin, Julio Sampaio, Andrej Shevchenko, Suzanne Eaton
Endocannabinoids are conserved inhibitors of the Hedgehog pathway.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A., 112(11) 3415-3420 (2015)
Hedgehog ligands control tissue development and homeostasis by alleviating repression of Smoothened, a seven-pass transmembrane protein. The Hedgehog receptor, Patched, is thought to regulate the availability of small lipophilic Smoothened repressors whose identity is unknown. Lipoproteins contain lipids required to repress Smoothened signaling in vivo. Here, using biochemical fractionation and lipid mass spectrometry, we identify these repressors as endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids circulate in human and Drosophila lipoproteins and act directly on Smoothened at physiological concentrations to repress signaling in Drosophila and mammalian assays. Phytocannabinoids are also potent Smo inhibitors. These findings link organismal metabolism to local Hedgehog signaling and suggest previously unsuspected mechanisms for the physiological activities of cannabinoids.

Stefanie Kretschmer, Christine Wolf, Nadja König, Wolfgang Staroske, Jochen Guck, Martin Häusler, H Luksch, Laura A Nguyen, Baek Kim, Dimitra Alexopoulou, Andreas Dahl, Alexander Rapp, M Cristina Cardoso, Anna Shevchenko, Min Ae Lee-Kirsch
SAMHD1 prevents autoimmunity by maintaining genome stability.
Ann Rheum Dis, 74(3) Art. No. e17 (2015)
Open Access PDF DOI
The HIV restriction factor, SAMHD1 (SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1), is a triphosphohydrolase that degrades deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs). Mutations in SAMHD1 cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), an inflammatory disorder that shares phenotypic similarity with systemic lupus erythematosus, including activation of antiviral type 1 interferon (IFN). To further define the pathomechanisms underlying autoimmunity in AGS due to SAMHD1 mutations, we investigated the physiological properties of SAMHD1.

Marc Gentzel, Carolin Schille, Verena Rauschenberger, Alexandra Schambony
Distinct functionality of dishevelled isoforms on Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CamKII) in Xenopus gastrulation.
Mol Biol Cell, 26(5) 966-977 (2015)
Wnt ligands trigger the activation of a variety of β-catenin-dependent and β-catenin-independent intracellular signaling cascades. Despite the variations in intracellular signaling, Wnt pathways share the effector proteins frizzled, dishevelled, and β-arrestin. It is unclear how the specific activation of individual branches and the integration of multiple signals are achieved. We hypothesized that the composition of dishevelled-β-arrestin protein complexes contributes to signal specificity and identified CamKII as an interaction partner of the dishevelled-β-arrestin protein complex by quantitative functional proteomics. Specifically, we found that CamKII isoforms interact differentially with the three vertebrate dishevelled proteins. Dvl1 is required for the activation of CamKII and PKC in the Wnt/Ca(2+) pathway. However, CamKII interacts with Dvl2 but not with Dvl1, and Dvl2 is necessary to mediate CamKII function downstream of Dvl1 in convergent extension movements in Xenopus gastrulation. Our findings indicate that the different Dvl proteins and the composition of dishevelled-β-arrestin protein complexes contribute to the specific activation of individual branches of Wnt signaling.

Michael Habeck, Haim Haviv, Adriana Katz, Einat Kapri-Pardes, Sophie Ayciriex, Andrej Shevchenko, Haruo Ogawa, Chikashi Toyoshima, Steven J D Karlish
Stimulation, Inhibition, or Stabilization of Na,K-ATPase Caused by Specific Lipid Interactions at Distinct Sites.
J Biol Chem, 290(8) 4829-4842 (2015)
The activity of membrane proteins such as Na,K-ATPase depends strongly on the surrounding lipid environment. Interactions can be annular, depending on the physical properties of the membrane, or specific with lipids bound in pockets between transmembrane domains. This paper describes three specific lipid-protein interactions using purified recombinant Na,K-ATPase. (a) Thermal stability of the Na,K-ATPase depends crucially on a specific interaction with 18:0/18:1 phosphatidylserine (1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine; SOPS) and cholesterol, which strongly amplifies stabilization. We show here that cholesterol associates with SOPS, FXYD1, and the α subunit between trans-membrane segments αTM8 and -10 to stabilize the protein. (b) Polyunsaturated neutral lipids stimulate Na,K-ATPase turnover by >60%. A screen of the lipid specificity showed that 18:0/20:4 and 18:0/22:6 phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) are the optimal phospholipids for this effect. (c) Saturated phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, but not saturated phosphatidylserine or PE, inhibit Na,K-ATPase activity by 70-80%. This effect depends strongly on the presence of cholesterol. Analysis of the Na,K-ATPase activity and E1-E2 conformational transitions reveals the kinetic mechanisms of these effects. Both stimulatory and inhibitory lipids poise the conformational equilibrium toward E2, but their detailed mechanisms of action are different. PE accelerates the rate of E1 → E2P but does not affect E2(2K)ATP → E13NaATP, whereas sphingomyelin inhibits the rate of E2(2K)ATP → E13NaATP, with very little effect on E1 → E2P. We discuss these lipid effects in relation to recent crystal structures of Na,K-ATPase and propose that there are three separate sites for the specific lipid interactions, with potential physiological roles to regulate activity and stability of the pump.

Cai Guo, Akiko Kumagai, Katharina Schlacher, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, William G Dunphy
Interaction of Chk1 with Treslin negatively regulates the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication.
Mol Cell, 57(3) 492-505 (2015)
Treslin helps to trigger the initiation of DNA replication by promoting integration of Cdc45 into the replicative helicase. Treslin is a key positive-regulatory target of cell-cycle control mechanisms; activation of Treslin by cyclin-dependent kinase is essential for the initiation of replication. Here we demonstrate that Treslin is also a critical locus for negative regulatory mechanisms that suppress initiation. We found that the checkpoint-regulatory kinase Chk1 associates specifically with a C-terminal domain of Treslin (designated TRCT). Mutations in the TRCT domain abolish binding of Chk1 to Treslin and thereby eliminate Chk1-catalyzed phosphorylation of Treslin. Significantly, abolition of the Treslin-Chk1 interaction results in elevated initiation of chromosomal DNA replication during an unperturbed cell cycle, which reveals a function for Chk1 during a normal S phase. This increase is due to enhanced loading of Cdc45 onto potential replication origins. These studies provide important insights into how vertebrate cells orchestrate proper initiation of replication.

Arne Schwelm, Johan Fogelqvist, Andrea Knaust, Sabine Jülke, Tua Lilja, German Bonilla-Rosso, Magnus Karlsson, Andrej Shevchenko, Vignesh Dhandapani, Su Ryun Choi, Hong Gi Kim, Ju Young Park, Yong Pyo Lim, Jutta Ludwig-Müller, Christina Dixelius
The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases.
Sci Rep, 5 Art. No. 11153 (2015)
Open Access DOI
Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot, a major disease of Brassica oil and vegetable crops worldwide. P. brassicae is a Plasmodiophorid, obligate biotrophic protist in the eukaryotic kingdom of Rhizaria. Here we present the 25.5 Mb genome draft of P. brassicae, developmental stage-specific transcriptomes and a transcriptome of Spongospora subterranea, the Plasmodiophorid causing powdery scab on potato. Like other biotrophic pathogens both Plasmodiophorids are reduced in metabolic pathways. Phytohormones contribute to the gall phenotypes of infected roots. We report a protein (PbGH3) that can modify auxin and jasmonic acid. Plasmodiophorids contain chitin in cell walls of the resilient resting spores. If recognized, chitin can trigger defense responses in plants. Interestingly, chitin-related enzymes of Plasmodiophorids built specific families and the carbohydrate/chitin binding (CBM18) domain is enriched in the Plasmodiophorid secretome. Plasmodiophorids chitin synthases belong to two families, which were present before the split of the eukaryotic Stramenopiles/Alveolates/Rhizaria/Plantae and Metazoa/Fungi/Amoebozoa megagroups, suggesting chitin synthesis to be an ancient feature of eukaryotes. This exemplifies the importance of genomic data from unexplored eukaryotic groups, such as the Plasmodiophorids, to decipher evolutionary relationships and gene diversification of early eukaryotes.

Maurice A Itoe, Julio Sampaio, Ghislain G Cabal, Eliana Real, Vanessa Zuzarte-Luis, Sandra March, Sangeeta N Bhatia, Friedrich Frischknecht, Christoph Thiele, Andrej Shevchenko, Maria M Mota
Host cell phosphatidylcholine is a key mediator of malaria parasite survival during liver stage infection.
Cell Host Microbe, 16(6) 778-786 (2014)
During invasion, Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, wraps itself in a parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM), which constitutes a critical interface between the parasite and its host cell. Within hepatocytes, each Plasmodium sporozoite generates thousands of new parasites, creating high demand for lipids to support this replication and enlarge the PVM. Here, a global analysis of the total lipid repertoire of Plasmodium-infected hepatocytes reveals an enrichment of neutral lipids and the major membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC). While infection is unaffected in mice deficient in key enzymes involved in neutral lipid synthesis and lipolysis, ablation of rate-limiting enzymes in hepatic PC biosynthetic pathways significantly decreases parasite numbers. Host PC is taken up by both P. berghei and P. falciparum and is necessary for correct localization of parasite proteins to the PVM, which is essential for parasite survival. Thus, Plasmodium relies on the abundance of these lipids within hepatocytes to support infection.

Christine Moessinger, Kristina Klizaite, Almut Steinhagen, Julia Philippou-Massier, Andrej Shevchenko, Michael Hoch, Christer S. Ejsing, Christoph Thiele
Two different pathways of phosphatidylcholine synthesis, the Kennedy Pathway and the Lands Cycle, differentially regulate cellular triacylglycerol storage.
BMC Cell Biol, 15(1) Art. No. 43 (2014)
BackgroundLipids are stored within cells in lipid droplets (LDs). They consist of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, predominantly phosphatidylcholine (PC). LDs are very dynamic and can rapidly change in size upon lipid uptake or release. These dynamics require a fast adaptation of LD surface. We have recently shown that two Lands cycle PC synthesizing enyzmes, LPCAT1 and LPCAT2 can localize to the LD surface.ResultsHere, we show that knock-down of both enzymes leads to an increase in LD size without changes in the total amount of neutral lipids, while interference with the de-novo Kennedy pathway PC biosynthesis is associated with changes in triacylglyceride synthesis. We show that function of LPCAT1 and 2 is conserved in Drosophila melanogaster by the ortholog CG32699. Furthermore we demonstrate that modulation of the LD pool by LPCAT1 influences the release of lipoprotein from liver cells.ConclusionActivity of the Kennedy pathway regulates the balance between phospholipids and neutral lipids, while the Lands cycle regulates lipid droplet size by regulating surface availability and influencing surface to volume ratio. Differences in lipid droplet size may account for differences in lipid dynamics and be relevant to understand lipid overload diseases.

Jonathan Rodenfels, Oksana Lavrynenko, Sophie Ayciriex, Julio Sampaio, Maria Carvalho, Andrej Shevchenko, Suzanne Eaton
Production of systemically circulating Hedgehog by the intestine couples nutrition to growth and development.
Genes Dev, 28(23) 2636-2651 (2014)
In Drosophila larvae, growth and developmental timing are regulated by nutrition in a tightly coordinated fashion. The networks that couple these processes are far from understood. Here, we show that the intestine responds to nutrient availability by regulating production of a circulating lipoprotein-associated form of the signaling protein Hedgehog (Hh). Levels of circulating Hh tune the rates of growth and developmental timing in a coordinated fashion. Circulating Hh signals to the fat body to control larval growth. It regulates developmental timing by controlling ecdysteroid production in the prothoracic gland. Circulating Hh is especially important during starvation, when it is also required for mobilization of fat body triacylglycerol (TAG) stores. Thus, we demonstrate that Hh, previously known only for its local morphogenetic functions, also acts as a lipoprotein-associated endocrine hormone, coordinating the response of multiple tissues to nutrient availability.

Matthias Kern, Joanna Kosacka, Nico Hesselbarth, Julia Brückner, John T Heiker, Gesine Flehmig, Ingrid Klöting, Peter Kovacs, Madlen Matz-Soja, Rolf Gebhardt, Knut Krohn, Susanne Sales, Kerstin Abshagen, Andrej Shevchenko, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Nora Klöting
Liver-restricted repin1 deficiency improves whole-body insulin sensitivity, alters lipid metabolism, and causes secondary changes in adipose tissue in mice.
Diabetes, 63(10) 3295-3309 (2014)
Replication initiator 1 (Repin1) is a zinc finger protein highly expressed in liver and adipose tissue and maps within a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for body weight and triglyceride (TG) levels in the rat. The QTL has further been supported as a susceptibility locus for dyslipidemia and related metabolic disorders in congenic and subcongenic rat strains. Here, we elucidated the role of Repin1 in lipid metabolism in vivo. We generated a liver-specific Repin1 knockout mouse (LRep1(-/-)) and systematically characterized the consequences of Repin1 deficiency in the liver on body weight, glucose and lipid metabolism, liver lipid patterns, and protein/mRNA expression. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed significantly improved whole-body insulin sensitivity in LRep1(-/-) mice, which may be due to significantly lower TG content in the liver. Repin1 deficiency causes significant changes in potential downstream target molecules including Cd36, Pparγ, Glut2 protein, Akt phosphorylation, and lipocalin2, Vamp4, and Snap23 mRNA expression. Mice with hepatic deletion of Repin1 display secondary changes in adipose tissue function, which may be mediated by altered hepatic expression of lipocalin2 or chemerin. Our findings indicate that Repin1 plays a role in insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism by regulating key genes of glucose and lipid metabolism.

Anna Shevchenko, Yimin Yang, Andrea Knaust, Henrik Thomas, Hongen Jiang, Enguo Lu, Changsui Wang, Andrej Shevchenko
Proteomics identifies the composition and manufacturing recipe of the 2500-year old sourdough bread from Subeixi cemetery in China.
J Proteomics, 105 363-371 (2014)
We report on the geLC-MS/MS proteomics analysis of cereals and cereal food excavated in Subeixi cemetery (500-300BC) in Xinjiang, China. Proteomics provided direct evidence that at the Subexi sourdough bread was made from barley and broomcorn millet by leavening with a renewable starter comprising baker's yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The baking recipe and flour composition indicated that barley and millet bread belonged to the staple food already in the first millennium BC and suggested the role of Turpan basin as a major route for cultural communication between Western and Eastern Eurasia in antiquity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms.

Juergen Graessler, T D Bornstein, D Goel, V P Bhalla, T Lohmann, T Wolf, Manuel Koch, Y Qin, J Licinio, M-L Wong, Trian Chavakis, A Xu, Anna Shevchenko, Kai Schuhmann, P E H Schwarz, K-M Schulte, Avinash Patel, Stefan Bornstein
Lipidomic profiling before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in obese patients with diabetes.
Pharmacogenomics J, 14(3) 201-207 (2014)
Bariatric surgery is a well-established approach to improve metabolic disease in morbidly obese patients with high cardiovascular risk. The post-operative normalization of lipid metabolism has a central role in the prevention of future cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study therefore was to characterize changes of plasma lipidomic patterns, consisting of 229 lipid species of 13 lipid classes, 3 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in morbidly obese patients with and without diabetes. RYGB resulted in a 15-32% decrease of body mass index, which was associated with a significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC, -28.3%; P=0.02), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, -26.8%; P=0.03) and triglycerides (TGs, -63.0%; P=0.05) measured by routine clinical chemistry. HDL-cholesterol remained unchanged. The effect of RYGB on the plasma lipidomic profile was characterized by significant decreases of 87 lipid species from triacylglycerides (TAGs), cholesterol esters (CholEs), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs), phosphatidylethanolamine ethers (PEOs), phosphatidylinositols (PIs) and ceramides (Cers). The total of plasma lipid components exhibited a substantial decline of 32.6% and 66 lipid species showed a decrease by over 50%. A direct correlation with HbA1C values could be demonstrated for 24 individual lipid species (10 TAG, three CholE, two LPC, one lysophosphatidylcholine ethers (LPCO) (LPC ether), one PC, two phosphatidylcholine ethers (PCO) and five Cer). Notably, two lipid species (TAG 58:5 and PEO 40:5) were inversely correlated with HbA1C. LPCO, as single whole lipid class, was directly related to HbA1C. These data indicate that RYGB-induced modulation of lipidomic profiles provides important information about post-operative metabolic adaptations and might substantially contribute to improvements of glycemic control. These striking changes in the human plasma lipidome may explain acute, weight independent and long-term effects of RYGB on the cardiovascular system, mental status and immune regulation.

Ramya Lakshminarayan, Christian Wunder, Ulrike Becken, Mark T Howes, Carola Benzing, Senthil Arumugam, Susanne Sales, Nicholas Ariotti, Valérie Chambon, Christophe Lamaze, Damarys Loew, Andrej Shevchenko, Katharina Gaus, Robert G. Parton, Ludger Johannes
Galectin-3 drives glycosphingolipid-dependent biogenesis of clathrin-independent carriers.
Nat Cell Biol, 16(6) 595-606 (2014)
Several cell surface molecules including signalling receptors are internalized by clathrin-independent endocytosis. How this process is initiated, how cargo proteins are sorted and membranes are bent remains unknown. Here, we found that a carbohydrate-binding protein, galectin-3 (Gal3), triggered the glycosphingolipid (GSL)-dependent biogenesis of a morphologically distinct class of endocytic structures, termed clathrin-independent carriers (CLICs). Super-resolution and reconstitution studies showed that Gal3 required GSLs for clustering and membrane bending. Gal3 interacted with a defined set of cargo proteins. Cellular uptake of the CLIC cargo CD44 was dependent on Gal3, GSLs and branched N-glycosylation. Endocytosis of β1-integrin was also reliant on Gal3. Analysis of different galectins revealed a distinct profile of cargoes and uptake structures, suggesting the existence of different CLIC populations. We conclude that Gal3 functionally integrates carbohydrate specificity on cargo proteins with the capacity of GSLs to drive clathrin-independent plasma membrane bending as a first step of CLIC biogenesis.

Yimin Yang, Anna Shevchenko, Andrea Knaust, Idelisi Abuduresule, Wenying Li, Xingjun Hu, Changsui Wang, Andrej Shevchenko
Proteomics evidence for kefir dairy in Early Bronze Age China
J Archaeol Sci, 45 178-186 (2014)

Cyrus Papan, Sider Penkov, Ronny Herzog, Christoph Thiele, Teymuras V. Kurzchalia, Andrej Shevchenko
Systematic screening for novel lipids by shotgun lipidomics.
Anal Chem, 86(5) 2703-2710 (2014)
A commonly accepted LIPID MAPS classification recognizes eight major lipid categories and over 550 classes, while new lipid classes are still being discovered by targeted biochemical approaches. Despite their compositional diversity, complex lipids such as glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, saccharolipids, etc. are constructed from unique structural moieties, e.g., glycerol, fatty acids, choline, phosphate, and trehalose, that are linked by amide, ether, ester, or glycosidic bonds. This modular organization is also reflected in their MS/MS fragmentation pathways, such that common building blocks in different lipid classes tend to generate common fragments. We take advantage of this stereotyped fragmentation to systematically screen for new lipids sharing distant structural similarity to known lipid classes and have developed a discovery approach based on the computational querying of shotgun mass spectra by LipidXplorer software. We applied this concept for screening lipid extracts of C. elegans larvae at the dauer and L3 stages that represent alternative developmental programs executed in response to environmental challenges. The search, covering more than 1.5 million putative chemical compositions, identified a novel class of lyso-maradolipids specifically enriched in dauer larvae.

Katharina Seitz, Verena Dürsch, Jakub Harnoš, Vitezslav Bryja, Marc Gentzel, Alexandra Schambony
β-Arrestin interacts with the beta/gamma subunits of trimeric G-proteins and dishevelled in the Wnt/Ca(2+) pathway in xenopus gastrulation.
PLoS ONE, 9(1) Art. No. e87132 (2014)
β-Catenin independent, non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways play a major role in the regulation of morphogenetic movements in vertebrates. The term non-canonical Wnt signaling comprises multiple, intracellularly divergent, Wnt-activated and β-Catenin independent signaling cascades including the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity and the Wnt/Ca(2+) cascades. Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity and Wnt/Ca(2+) pathways share common effector proteins, including the Wnt ligand, Frizzled receptors and Dishevelled, with each other and with additional branches of Wnt signaling. Along with the aforementioned proteins, β-Arrestin has been identified as an essential effector protein in the Wnt/β-Catenin and the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity pathway. Our results demonstrate that β-Arrestin is required in the Wnt/Ca(2+) signaling cascade upstream of Protein Kinase C (PKC) and Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II (CamKII). We have further characterized the role of β-Arrestin in this branch of non-canonical Wnt signaling by knock-down and rescue experiments in Xenopus embryo explants and analyzed protein-protein interactions in 293T cells. Functional interaction of β-Arrestin, the β subunit of trimeric G-proteins and Dishevelled is required to induce PKC activation and membrane translocation. In Xenopus gastrulation, β-Arrestin function in Wnt/Ca(2+) signaling is essential for convergent extension movements. We further show that β-Arrestin physically interacts with the β subunit of trimeric G-proteins and Dishevelled, and that the interaction between β-Arrestin and Dishevelled is promoted by the beta/gamma subunits of trimeric G-proteins, indicating the formation of a multiprotein signaling complex.

Cihan Erkut, Andrej Vasilj, Sebastian Boland, Bianca Habermann, Andrej Shevchenko, Teymuras V. Kurzchalia
Molecular Strategies of the Caenorhabditis elegans Dauer Larva to Survive Extreme Desiccation.
PLoS ONE, 8(12) Art. No. e82473 (2013)
Massive water loss is a serious challenge for terrestrial animals, which usually has fatal consequences. However, some organisms have developed means to survive this stress by entering an ametabolic state called anhydrobiosis. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. We recently showed that Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larva, an arrested stage specialized for survival in adverse conditions, is resistant to severe desiccation. However, this requires a preconditioning step at a mild desiccative environment to prepare the organism for harsher desiccation conditions. A systems approach was used to identify factors that are activated during this preconditioning. Using microarray analysis, proteomics, and bioinformatics, genes, proteins, and biochemical pathways that are upregulated during this process were identified. These pathways were validated via reverse genetics by testing the desiccation tolerances of mutants. These data show that the desiccation response is activated by hygrosensation (sensing the desiccative environment) via head neurons. This leads to elimination of reactive oxygen species and xenobiotics, expression of heat shock and intrinsically disordered proteins, polyamine utilization, and induction of fatty acid desaturation pathway. Remarkably, this response is specific and involves a small number of functional pathways, which represent the generic toolkit for anhydrobiosis in plants and animals.

Aniket Ghosh, Tina Kling, Nicolas Snaidero, Julio Sampaio, Andrej Shevchenko, Heribert Gras, Bart Geurten, Martin Göpfert, Jörg B Schulz, Aaron Voigt, Mikael Simons
A Global In Vivo Drosophila RNAi Screen Identifies a Key Role of Ceramide Phosphoethanolamine for Glial Ensheathment of Axons.
PLoS Genet, 9(12) Art. No. e1003980 (2013)
Glia are of vital importance for all complex nervous system. One of the many functions of glia is to insulate and provide trophic and metabolic support to axons. Here, using glial-specific RNAi knockdown in Drosophila, we silenced 6930 conserved genes in adult flies to identify essential genes and pathways. Among our screening hits, metabolic processes were highly represented, and genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways appeared to be essential in glia. One critical pathway identified was de novo ceramide synthesis. Glial knockdown of lace, a subunit of the serine palmitoyltransferase associated with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies in humans, resulted in ensheathment defects of peripheral nerves in Drosophila. A genetic dissection study combined with shotgun high-resolution mass spectrometry of lipids showed that levels of ceramide phosphoethanolamine are crucial for axonal ensheathment by glia. A detailed morphological and functional analysis demonstrated that the depletion of ceramide phosphoethanolamine resulted in axonal defasciculation, slowed spike propagation, and failure of wrapping glia to enwrap peripheral axons. Supplementing sphingosine into the diet rescued the neuropathy in flies. Thus, our RNAi study in Drosophila identifies a key role of ceramide phosphoethanolamine in wrapping of axons by glia.

Ronny Herzog, Dominik Schwudke, Andrej Shevchenko
LipidXplorer: Software for Quantitative Shotgun Lipidomics Compatible with Multiple Mass Spectrometry Platforms
In: Current Protocols in Bioinformatics ; 43. (Eds.) Andreas D. Baxevanis,Hoboken, USA,Wiley (2013),141201-141230 Ch. 1412
LipidXplorer is an open‐source software kit that supports the identification and quantification of molecular species of any lipid class detected by shotgun experiments performed on any mass spectrometry platform. LipidXplorer does not rely on a database of reference spectra: instead, lipid identification routines are user defined in the declarative molecular fragmentation query language (MFQL). The software supports batch processing of multiple shotgun acquisitions by high‐resolution mass mapping, precursor and neutral‐loss scanning, and data‐dependent MS/MS lending itself to a variety of lipidomics applications in cell biology and molecular medicine.

Virgínia Maria Ferreira Resende, Andrej Vasilj, Keity Souza Santos, Mario Sergio Palma, Andrej Shevchenko
Proteome and phosphoproteome of Africanized and European honeybee venoms.
Proteomics, 13(17) 2638-2648 (2013)
Honey bee venom toxins trigger immunological, physiological, and neurological responses within victims. The high occurrence of bee attacks involving potentially fatal toxic and allergic reactions in humans and the prospect of developing novel pharmaceuticals make honey bee venom an attractive target for proteomic studies. Using label-free quantification, we compared the proteome and phosphoproteome of the venom of Africanized honeybees with that of two European subspecies, namely Apis mellifera ligustica and A. m. carnica. From the total of 51 proteins, 42 were common to all three subspecies. Remarkably, the toxins melittin and icarapin were phosphorylated. In all venoms, icarapin was phosphorylated at the (205) Ser residue, which is located in close proximity to its known antigenic site. Melittin, the major toxin of honeybee venoms, was phosphorylated in all venoms at the (10) Thr and (18) Ser residues. (18) Ser phosphorylated melittin-the major of its two phosphorylated forms-was less toxic compared to the native peptide.

Oksana Lavrynenko, Ruslan Nedielkov, Heiko M Möller, Andrej Shevchenko
Girard derivatization for LC-MS/MS profiling of endogenous ecdysteroids in Drosophila
J Lipid Res, 54(8) 2265-2272 (2013)
Ecdysteroids are potent developmental regulators that control molting, reproduction, and stress response in arthropods. In developing larvae, picogram quantities of individual ecdysteroids and their conjugated forms are present along with milligrams of structural and energy storage lipids. To enhance the specificity and sensitivity of ecdysteroid detection, we targeted the 6-ketone group, which is common to all ecdysteroids, with Girard reagents. Unlike other ketosteroids, during the reaction, Girard hydrazones of ecdysteroids eliminated the C14-hydroxyl group, creating an additional C14-C15 double bond. Dehydrated hydrazones of endogenous ecdysteroids were detected by LC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using two mass transitions: one relied upon neutral loss of a quaternary amine from the Girard T moiety; another complementary transition followed neutral loss of the hydrocarbon chain upon C20-C27 cleavage. We further demonstrated that a combination of Girard derivatization and LC-MS/MS enabled unequivocal detection of three major endogenous hormones at the picogram level in an extract from a single Drosophila pupa.

Andrea Knaust, Jutta Ludwig-Müller
The Ethylene Signaling Pathway is Needed to Restrict Root Gall Growth in Arabidopsis after Infection with the Obligate Biotrophic Protist Plasmodiophora brassicae
J Plant Growth Regul, 32(1) 9-21 (2013)

Karl F Lechtreck, Jason M Brown, Julio Sampaio, Julie M Craft, Andrej Shevchenko, James E Evans, George B Witman
Cycling of the signaling protein phospholipase D through cilia requires the BBSome only for the export phase.
J Cell Biol, 201(2) 249-261 (2013)
The BBSome is a complex of seven proteins, including BBS4, that is cycled through cilia by intraflagellar transport (IFT). Previous work has shown that the membrane-associated signaling protein phospholipase D (PLD) accumulates abnormally in cilia of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii bbs mutants. Here we show that PLD is a component of wild-type cilia but is enriched ∼150-fold in bbs4 cilia; this accumulation occurs progressively over time and results in altered ciliary lipid composition. When wild-type BBSomes were introduced into bbs cells, PLD was rapidly removed from the mutant cilia, indicating the presence of an efficient BBSome-dependent mechanism for exporting ciliary PLD. This export requires retrograde IFT. Importantly, entry of PLD into cilia is BBSome and IFT independent. Therefore, the BBSome is required only for the export phase of a process that continuously cycles PLD through cilia. Another protein, carbonic anhydrase 6, is initially imported normally into bbs4 cilia but lost with time, suggesting that its loss is a secondary effect of BBSome deficiency.

Zoltan Maliga, Magno Junqueira, Yusuke Toyoda, Andreas Ettinger, Felipe Mora-Bermúdez, Robin Klemm, Andrej Vasilj, E. Guhr, Itziar Ibarlucea-Benitez, Ina Poser, Enzio Bonifacio, Wieland B. Huttner, Andrej Shevchenko, Anthony Hyman
A genomic toolkit to investigate kinesin and myosin motor function in cells.
Nat Cell Biol, 15(3) 325-334 (2013)
Coordination of multiple kinesin and myosin motors is required for intracellular transport, cell motility and mitosis. However, comprehensive resources that allow systems analysis of the localization and interplay between motors in living cells do not exist. Here, we generated a library of 243 amino- and carboxy-terminally tagged mouse and human bacterial artificial chromosome transgenes to establish 227 stably transfected HeLa cell lines, 15 mouse embryonic stem cell lines and 1 transgenic mouse line. The cells were characterized by expression and localization analyses and further investigated by affinity-purification mass spectrometry, identifying 191 candidate protein-protein interactions. We illustrate the power of this resource in two ways. First, by characterizing a network of interactions that targets CEP170 to centrosomes, and second, by showing that kinesin light-chain heterodimers bind conventional kinesin in cells. Our work provides a set of validated resources and candidate molecular pathways to investigate motor protein function across cell lineages.

Céline Fernandez, Marianne Sandin, Julio Sampaio, Peter Almgren, Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Michaela Hoffmann, Thomas Hedner, Björn Wahlstrand, Kai Simons, Andrej Shevchenko, Peter James, Olle Melander
Plasma lipid composition and risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
PLoS ONE, 8(8) Art. No. e71846 (2013)
We tested whether characteristic changes of the plasma lipidome in individuals with comparable total lipids level associate with future cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcome and whether 23 validated gene variants associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) affect CVD associated lipid species.

J Gräßler, S Kopprasch, J Passauer, Steffi Fischer, Kai Schuhmann, S Bergmann, G Siegert, Andrej Shevchenko, Stefan R. Bornstein, U Julius
Differential effects of lipoprotein apheresis by lipidfiltration or dextran sulfate adsorption on lipidomic profile.
Atheroscler Suppl, 14(1) 151-155 (2013)
Acute modification of plasma lipidomic profile was assessed by top-down shotgun profiling on a LTQ Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer in 14 patients treated with two different apheresis techniques: plasma lipidfiltration (LF) and whole blood dextran sulfate adsorption (DSA).

Christoph Thiele, Cyrus Papan, Dominik Hoelper, Kalina Kusserow, Anne Gaebler, Mario Schoene, Kira Piotrowitz, Daniel Lohmann, Johanna Spandl, Ana Stevanovic, Andrej Shevchenko, Lars Kuerschner
Tracing fatty acid metabolism by click chemistry.
ACS Chem Biol, 7(12) 2004-2011 (2012)
Fatty acids are abundant constituents of all biological systems, and their metabolism is important for normal function at all levels of an organism. Aberrations in fatty acid metabolism are associated with pathological states and have become a focus of current research, particularly due to the interest in metabolic overload diseases. Here we present a click-chemistry-based method that allows tracing of fatty acid metabolism in virtually any biological system. It combines high sensitivity with excellent linearity and fast sample turnover. Since it is free of radioactivity, it can be combined with any other modern analysis technology and can be used in high-throughput applications. Using the new method, we provide for the first time an analysis of cellular fatty metabolism with high time resolution and a comprehensive comparison of utilization of a broad spectrum of fatty acids in hepatoma and adipose cell lines.

Michael Groessl, H Luksch, Angela Rösen-Wolff, Andrej Shevchenko, Marc Gentzel
Profiling of the human monocytic cell secretome by quantitative label-free mass spectrometry identifies stimulus-specific cytokines and proinflammatory proteins.
Proteomics, 12(18) 2833-2842 (2012)
The immune response to pathogens or injury relies on the concerted release of cytokines and proteins with biological activity important for host protection, host defense, and wound healing. Consequently, the secretome of immune cells provides a promising resource for discovery of specific molecular markers and targets for pharmacological intervention. Here, we employ label-free MS for unbiased, quantitative profiling of the human monocytic cell secretome under different proinflammatory stimuli. The quantitative secretome profiles reveal the highly stimulus-dependent cellular response and differential, specific secretion of more than 200 proteins, including important proinflammatory proteins and cytokines.

Andrej Vasilj✳︎, Marc Gentzel✳︎, Elke Ueberham, Rolf Gebhardt, Andrej Shevchenko
Tissue proteomics by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with label-free protein quantification
J Proteome Res, 11(7) 3680-3689 (2012)
Label-free methods streamline quantitative proteomics of tissues by alleviating the need for metabolic labeling of proteins with stable isotopes. Here we detail and implement solutions to common problems in label-free data processing geared toward tissue proteomics by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (geLC MS/MS). Our quantification pipeline showed high levels of performance in terms of duplicate reproducibility, linear dynamic range, and number of proteins identified and quantified. When applied to the liver of an adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) knockout mouse, we demonstrated an 8-fold increase in the number of statistically significant changing proteins compared to alternative approaches, including many more previously unidentified hydrophobic proteins. Better proteome coverage and quantification accuracy revealed molecular details of the perturbed energy metabolism.

Wilhelm Palm, Julio Sampaio, Marko Brankatschk, Maria Carvalho, Ali Mahmoud, Andrej Shevchenko, Suzanne Eaton
Lipoproteins in Drosophila melanogaster-Assembly, Function, and Influence on Tissue Lipid Composition
PLoS Genet, 8(7) Art. No. e1002828 (2012)
Interorgan lipid transport occurs via lipoproteins, and altered lipoprotein levels correlate with metabolic disease. However, precisely how lipoproteins affect tissue lipid composition has not been comprehensively analyzed. Here, we identify the major lipoproteins of Drosophila melanogaster and use genetics and mass spectrometry to study their assembly, interorgan trafficking, and influence on tissue lipids. The apoB-family lipoprotein Lipophorin (Lpp) is the major hemolymph lipid carrier. It is produced as a phospholipid-rich particle by the fat body, and its secretion requires Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTP). Lpp acquires sterols and most diacylglycerol (DAG) at the gut via Lipid Transfer Particle (LTP), another fat body-derived apoB-family lipoprotein. The gut, like the fat body, is a lipogenic organ, incorporating both de novo-synthesized and dietary fatty acids into DAG for export. We identify distinct requirements for LTP and Lpp-dependent lipid mobilization in contributing to the neutral and polar lipid composition of the brain and wing imaginal disc. These studies define major routes of interorgan lipid transport in Drosophila and uncover surprising tissue-specific differences in lipoprotein lipid utilization.

Maria Carvalho✳︎, Julio Sampaio✳︎, Wilhelm Palm, Marko Brankatschk, Suzanne Eaton#, Andrej Shevchenko#
Effects of diet and development on the Drosophila lipidome
Mol Syst Biol, 8 Art. No. 600 (2012)
Cells produce tens of thousands of different lipid species, but the importance of this complexity in vivo is unclear. Analysis of individual tissues and cell types has revealed differences in abundance of individual lipid species, but there has been no comprehensive study comparing tissue lipidomes within a single developing organism. Here, we used quantitative shotgun profiling by high-resolution mass spectrometry to determine the absolute (molar) content of 250 species of 14 major lipid classes in 6 tissues of animals at 27 developmental stages raised on 4 different diets. Comparing these lipidomes revealed unexpected insights into lipid metabolism. Surprisingly, the fatty acids present in dietary lipids directly influence tissue phospholipid composition throughout the animal. Furthermore, Drosophila differentially regulates uptake, mobilization and tissue accumulation of specific sterols, and undergoes unsuspected shifts in fat metabolism during larval and pupal development. Finally, we observed striking differences between tissue lipidomes that are conserved between phyla. This study provides a comprehensive, quantitative and expandable resource for further pharmacological and genetic studies of metabolic disorders and molecular mechanisms underlying dietary response.

Ronny Herzog
Novel concepts for lipid identification from shotgun mass spectra using a customized query language
Ph.D. Thesis,Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany (2012)

Iris Eke, Yvonne Deuse, Stephanie Hehlgans, Kristin Gurtner, Maximilian Krause, Michael Baumann, Anna Shevchenko, Veit Sandfort, Nils Cordes
β₁Integrin/FAK/cortactin signaling is essential for human head and neck cancer resistance to radiotherapy.
J Clin Invest, 122(4) 1529-1540 (2012)
Integrin signaling critically contributes to the progression, growth, and therapy resistance of malignant tumors. Here, we show that targeting of β? integrins with inhibitory antibodies enhances the sensitivity to ionizing radiation and delays the growth of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines in 3D cell culture and in xenografted mice. Mechanistically, dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) upon inhibition of β? integrin resulted in dissociation of a FAK/cortactin protein complex. This, in turn, downregulated JNK signaling and induced cell rounding, leading to radiosensitization. Thus, these findings suggest that robust and selective pharmacological targeting of β? integrins may provide therapeutic benefit to overcome tumor cell resistance to radiotherapy.

Sanjay Kumar, Hae Yong Yoo, Akiko Kumagai, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, William G Dunphy
Role for Rif1 in the checkpoint response to damaged DNA in Xenopus egg extracts
Cell Cycle, 11(6) 1183-1194 (2012)
TopBP1 is critical for both DNA replication and checkpoint regulation in vertebrate cells. In this study, we have identified Rif1 as a binding partner of TopBP1 in Xenopus egg extracts. In addition, Rif1 also interacts with both ATM and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex, which are key regulators of checkpoint responses to double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Depletion of Rif1 from egg extracts compromises the activation of Chk1 in response to DSBs but not stalled replication forks. Removal of Rif1 also has a significant impact on the chromatin-binding behavior of key checkpoint proteins. In particular, binding of TopBP1, ATR and the MRN complex to chromatin containing DSBs is reduced in the absence of Rif1. Rif1 interacts with chromatin in a highly regulated and dynamic manner. In unperturbed egg extracts, the association of Rif1 with chromatin depends upon formation of replication forks. In the presence of DSBs, there is elevated accumulation of Rif1 on chromatin under conditions where the activation of ATM is suppressed. Taken together, these results suggest that Rif1 plays a dynamic role in the early steps of a checkpoint response to DSBs in the egg-extract system by promoting the correct accumulation of key regulators on the DNA.

Andrea Knaust, Andrej Shevchenko, Anna Shevchenko
Horizontal carryover of proteins on one-dimensional polyacrylamide gels may jeopardize gel-enhanced liquid chromatography mass spectrometry proteomic interpretations.
Anal Biochem, 421(2) 779-781 (2012)
Mass spectrometric identification of gel-separated proteins is a cornerstone of many proteomic efforts. Often the protein compositions of two neighboring lanes (typically representing the experiment and control) are compared assuming that proteins are separated only in a vertical dimension and do not spread horizontally. However, we noticed that horizontal protein spreading commonly occurs on one-dimensional polyacrylamide gels and might lead to a misleading judgment regarding the presence or absence of particular proteins even in the distantly spaced lanes. Therefore, we suggest that experimental and control samples should always be loaded on separate gels.

Sophie Ayciriex, Marina Le Guédard, Nadine Camougrand, Gisèle Velours, Mario Schoene, Sebastien Leone, Valerie Wattelet-Boyer, Jean-William Dupuy, Andrej Shevchenko, Jean-Marie Schmitter, René Lessire, Jean-Jacques Bessoule, Eric Testet
YPR139c/LOA1 encodes a novel lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase associated with lipid droplets and involved in TAG homeostasis.
Mol Biol Cell, 23(2) 233-246 (2012)
For many years, lipid droplets (LDs) were considered to be an inert store of lipids. However, recent data showed that LDs are dynamic organelles playing an important role in storage and mobilization of neutral lipids. In this paper, we report the characterization of LOA1 (alias VPS66, alias YPR139c), a yeast member of the glycerolipid acyltransferase family. LOA1 mutants show abnormalities in LD morphology. As previously reported, cells lacking LOA1 contain more LDs. Conversely, we showed that overexpression results in fewer LDs. We then compared the lipidome of loa1Δ mutant and wild-type strains. Steady-state metabolic labeling of loa1Δ revealed a significant reduction in triacylglycerol content, while phospholipid (PL) composition remained unchanged. Interestingly, lipidomic analysis indicates that both PLs and glycerolipids are qualitatively affected by the mutation, suggesting that Loa1p is a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPA AT) with a preference for oleoyl-CoA. This hypothesis was tested by in vitro assays using both membranes of Escherichia coli cells expressing LOA1 and purified proteins as enzyme sources. Our results from purification of subcellular compartments and proteomic studies show that Loa1p is associated with LD and active in this compartment. Loa1p is therefore a novel LPA AT and plays a role in LD formation.

Kai Schuhmann, Reinaldo Almeida, Mark Baumert, Ronny Herzog, Stefan R. Bornstein, Andrej Shevchenko
Shotgun lipidomics on a LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer by successive switching between acquisition polarity modes.
J Mass Spectrom, 47(1) 96-104 (2012)
Top-down shotgun lipidomics relies on direct infusion of total lipid extracts into a high-resolution tandem mass spectrometer and implies that individual lipids are recognized by their accurately determined m/z. Lipid ionization efficiency and detection specificity strongly depend on the acquisition polarity, and therefore it is beneficial to analyze lipid mixtures in both positive and negative modes. Hybrid LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometers are widely applied in top-down lipidomics; however, rapid polarity switching was previously unfeasible because of the severe and immediate degradation of mass accuracy. Here, we report on a method to rapidly acquire high-resolution spectra in both polarity modes with sub-ppm mass accuracy and demonstrate that it not only simplifies and accelerates shotgun lipidomics analyses but also improves the lipidome coverage because more lipid classes and more individual species within each class are recognized. In this way, shotgun analysis of total lipid extracts of human blood plasma enabled to quantify 222 species from 15 major lipid classes within 7 min acquisition cycle. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Mathias J. Gerl, Julio Sampaio, Lucie Kalvodova, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Andrej Shevchenko, Cornelia Schroeder, Kai Simons
Quantitative analysis of the lipidomes of the influenza virus envelope and MDCK cell apical membrane
J Cell Biol, 196(2) 213-221 (2012)
The influenza virus (IFV) acquires its envelope by budding from host cell plasma membranes. Using quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry, we determined the lipidomes of the host Madin–Darby canine kidney cell, its apical membrane, and the IFV budding from it. We found the apical membrane to be enriched in sphingolipids (SPs) and cholesterol, whereas glycerophospholipids were reduced, and storage lipids were depleted compared with the whole-cell membranes. The virus membrane exhibited a further enrichment of SPs and cholesterol compared with the donor membrane at the expense of phosphatidylcholines. Our data are consistent with and extend existing models of membrane raft-based biogenesis of the apical membrane and IFV envelope.

Luis M B B Estronca, Jorge Santos Da Silva, Julio Sampaio, Andrej Shevchenko, Paul Verkade, Alfin D N Vaz, Winchil Vaz, Otilia V Vieira
Molecular etiology of atherogenesis--in vitro induction of lipidosis in macrophages with a new LDL model
PLoS ONE, 7(4) Art. No. e34822 (2012)
Atherosclerosis starts by lipid accumulation in the arterial intima and progresses into a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. A major atherogenic process is the formation of lipid-loaded macrophages in which a breakdown of the endolysomal pathway results in irreversible accumulation of cargo in the late endocytic compartments with a phenotype similar to several forms of lipidosis. Macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL exihibit this phenomenon in vitro and manifest an impaired degradation of internalized lipids and enhanced inflammatory stimulation. Identification of the specific chemical component(s) causing this phenotype has been elusive because of the chemical complexity of oxidized LDL.

Ronny Herzog, Kai Schuhmann, Dominik Schwudke, Julio Sampaio, Stefan R. Bornstein, Michael Schroeder, Andrej Shevchenko
LipidXplorer: A Software for Consensual Cross-Platform Lipidomics.
PLoS ONE, 7(1) Art. No. e29851 (2012)
LipidXplorer is the open source software that supports the quantitative characterization of complex lipidomes by interpreting large datasets of shotgun mass spectra. LipidXplorer processes spectra acquired on any type of tandem mass spectrometers; it identifies and quantifies molecular species of any ionizable lipid class by considering any known or assumed molecular fragmentation pathway independently of any resource of reference mass spectra. It also supports any shotgun profiling routine, from high throughput top-down screening for molecular diagnostic and biomarker discovery to the targeted absolute quantification of low abundant lipid species. Full documentation on installation and operation of LipidXplorer, including tutorial, collection of spectra interpretation scripts, FAQ and user forum are available through the wiki site at: https://wiki.mpi-cbg.de/wiki/lipidx/index.php/Main_Page.

Christian Klose, Michal Surma, Mathias J. Gerl, Felix Meyenhofer, Andrej Shevchenko, Kai Simons
Flexibility of a Eukaryotic Lipidome – Insights from Yeast Lipidomics
PLoS ONE, 7(4) Art. No. e35063 (2012)
Mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics has enabled the quantitative and comprehensive assessment of cellular lipid compositions. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be a particularly valuable experimental system for studying lipid-related cellular processes. Here, by applying our shotgun lipidomics platform, we investigated the influence of a variety of commonly used growth conditions on the yeast lipidome, including glycerophospholipids, triglycerides, ergosterol as well as complex sphingolipids. This extensive dataset allowed for a quantitative description of the intrinsic flexibility of a eukaryotic lipidome, thereby providing new insights into the adjustments of lipid biosynthetic pathways. In addition, we established a baseline for future lipidomic experiments in yeast. Finally, flexibility of lipidomic features is proposed as a new parameter for the description of the physiological state of an organism.

Lars Kuerschner, Doris Richter, Hans Kristian Hannibal-Bach, Anne Gaebler, Andrej Shevchenko, Christer S. Ejsing, Christoph Thiele
Exogenous ether lipids predominantly target mitochondria.
PLoS ONE, 7(2) Art. No. e31342 (2012)
Ether lipids are ubiquitous constituents of cellular membranes with no discrete cell biological function assigned yet. Using fluorescent polyene-ether lipids we analyzed their intracellular distribution in living cells by microscopy. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated high amounts of ether-phosphatidylcholine and ether-phosphatidylethanolamine. Both lipids were specifically labeled using the corresponding lyso-ether lipids, which we established as supreme precursors for lipid tagging. Polyfosine, a fluorescent analogue of the anti-neoplastic ether lipid edelfosine, accumulated to mitochondria and induced morphological changes and cellular apoptosis. These data indicate that edelfosine could exert its pro-apoptotic power by targeting and damaging mitochondria and thereby inducing cellular apoptosis. In general, this study implies an important role of mitochondria in ether lipid metabolism and intracellular ether lipid trafficking.

Aurelie Tomczak, Jana Sontheimer, David N. Drechsel, Rainer Hausdorf, Marc Gentzel, Andrej Shevchenko, Stefanie Eichler, Karim Fahmy, Frank Buchholz, Maria Teresa Pisabarro
3D profile-based approach to proteome-wide discovery of novel human chemokines
PLoS ONE, 7(5) Art. No. e36151 (2012)
Chemokines are small secreted proteins with important roles in immune responses. They consist of a conserved three-dimensional (3D) structure, so-called IL8-like chemokine fold, which is supported by disulfide bridges characteristic of this protein family. Sequence- and profile-based computational methods have been proficient in discovering novel chemokines by making use of their sequence-conserved cysteine patterns. However, it has been recently shown that some chemokines escaped annotation by these methods due to low sequence similarity to known chemokines and to different arrangement of cysteines in sequence and in 3D. Innovative methods overcoming the limitations of current techniques may allow the discovery of new remote homologs in the still functionally uncharacterized fraction of the human genome. We report a novel computational approach for proteome-wide identification of remote homologs of the chemokine family that uses fold recognition techniques in combination with a scaffold-based automatic mapping of disulfide bonds to define a 3D profile of the chemokine protein family. By applying our methodology to all currently uncharacterized human protein sequences, we have discovered two novel proteins that, without having significant sequence similarity to known chemokines or characteristic cysteine patterns, show strong structural resemblance to known anti-HIV chemokines. Detailed computational analysis and experimental structural investigations based on mass spectrometry and circular dichroism support our structural predictions and highlight several other chemokine-like features. The results obtained support their functional annotation as putative novel chemokines and encourage further experimental characterization. The identification of remote homologs of human chemokines may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms causing pathologies such as cancer or AIDS, and may contribute to the development of novel treatments. Besides, the genome-wide applicability of our methodology based on 3D protein family profiles may open up new possibilities for improving and accelerating protein function annotation processes.

Marina Edelson-Averbukh, Andrej Shevchenko, Rüdiger Pipkorn, Wolf D Lehmann
Discrimination between peptide O-sulfo- and O-phosphotyrosine residues by negative ion mode electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom, 22(12) 2256-2268 (2011)
Unambiguous differentiation between isobaric sulfated and phosphorylated tyrosine residues (sTyr and pTyr) of proteins by mass spectrometry is challenging, even using high resolution mass spectrometers. Here we show that upon negative ion mode collision-induced dissociation (CID), pTyr- and sTyr-containing peptides exhibit entirely different modification-specific fragmentation patterns leading to a rapid discrimination between the isobaric covalent modifications using the tandem mass spectral data. This study reveals that the ratio between the relative abundances of [M-H-80](-) and [M-H-98](-) fragment ions in ion-trap CID and higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) spectra of singly deprotonated +80 Da Tyr-peptides can be used as a reliable indication of the Tyr modification group nature. For multiply deprotonated +80 Da Tyr-peptides, CID spectra of sTyr- and pTyr-containing sequences can be readily distinguished based on the presence/absence of the [M-nH-79]((n-1)-) and [M-nH-79-NL]((n-1)-) (n=2, 3) fragment ions (NL=neutral loss).

Shirin Pocha, Anna Shevchenko, Elisabeth Knust
Crumbs regulates rhodopsin transport by interacting with and stabilizing myosin V
J Cell Biol, 195(5) 827-838 (2011)
The evolutionarily conserved Crumbs (Crb) complex is crucial for photoreceptor morphogenesis and homeostasis. Loss of Crb results in light-dependent retinal degeneration, which is prevented by feeding mutant flies carotenoid-deficient medium. This suggests a defect in rhodopsin 1 (Rh1) processing, transport, and/or signaling, causing degeneration; however, the molecular mechanism of this remained elusive. In this paper, we show that myosin V (MyoV) coimmunoprecipitated with the Crb complex and that loss of crb led to severe reduction in MyoV levels, which could be rescued by proteasomal inhibition. Loss of MyoV in crb mutant photoreceptors was accompanied by defective transport of the MyoV cargo Rh1 to the light-sensing organelle, the rhabdomere. This resulted in an age-dependent accumulation of Rh1 in the photoreceptor cell (PRC) body, a well-documented trigger of degeneration. We conclude that Crb protects against degeneration by interacting with and stabilizing MyoV, thereby ensuring correct Rh1 trafficking. Our data provide, for the first time, a molecular mechanism for the light-dependent degeneration of PRCs observed in crb mutant retinas.

Dominik Schwudke, Kai Schuhmann, Ronny Herzog, Stefan R. Bornstein, Andrej Shevchenko
Shotgun lipidomics on high resolution mass spectrometers.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol, 3(9) Art. No. a004614 (2011)
Despite their compositional complexity, lipidomes comprise a large number of isobaric species that cannot be distinguished by conventional low resolution mass spectrometry and therefore in-depth MS/MS analysis was required for their accurate quantification. Here we argue that the progress in high resolution mass spectrometry is changing the concept of lipidome characterization. Because exact masses of isobaric species belonging to different lipid classes are not necessarily identical, they can now be distinguished and directly quantified in total lipid extracts. By streamlining and simplifying the molecular characterization of lipidomes, high resolution mass spectrometry has developed into a generic tool for cell biology and molecular medicine.

Kai Schuhmann, Ronny Herzog, Dominik Schwudke, Wolfgang Metelmann-Strupat, Stefan R. Bornstein, Andrej Shevchenko
Bottom-up shotgun lipidomics by higher energy collisional dissociation on LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometers.
Anal Chem, 83(14) 5480-5487 (2011)
Higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) is a complementary fragmentation tool that has recently become available on mass spectrometers of the LTQ Orbitrap family. We report on a shotgun bottom-up lipidomics approach that relies on HCD of the isolated lipid precursors. HCD, together with the high mass resolution and mass accuracy of the Orbitrap analyzer, improved the confidence of molecular species assignment and accuracy of their quantification in total lipid extracts. These capabilities were particularly important for accounting for biologically interesting lipid species comprising polyunsaturated and odd numbered fatty acid moieties. We argue that now both bottom-up and top-down shotgun lipidomics could be performed on the same instrumentation platform.

Dragomir Krastev, Mikolaj Slabicki, Maciej Paszkowski-Rogacz, Nina C Hubner, Magno Junqueira, Andrej Shevchenko, Matthias Mann, Karla M. Neugebauer, Frank Buchholz
A systematic RNAi synthetic interaction screen reveals a link between p53 and snoRNP assembly.
Nat Cell Biol, 13(7) 809-818 (2011)
TP53 (tumour protein 53) is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer and its role during cellular transformation has been studied extensively. However, the homeostatic functions of p53 are less well understood. Here, we explore the molecular dependency network of TP53 through an RNAi-mediated synthetic interaction screen employing two HCT116 isogenic cell lines and a genome-scale endoribonuclease-prepared short interfering RNA library. We identify a variety of TP53 synthetic interactions unmasking the complex connections of p53 to cellular physiology and growth control. Molecular dissection of the TP53 synthetic interaction with UNRIP indicates an enhanced dependency of TP53-negative cells on small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) assembly. This dependency is mediated by the snoRNP chaperone gene NOLC1 (also known as NOPP140), which we identify as a physiological p53 target gene. This unanticipated function of TP53 in snoRNP assembly highlights the potential of RNAi-mediated synthetic interaction screens to dissect molecular pathways of tumour suppressor genes.

Christine Moessinger, Lars Kuerschner, Johanna Spandl, Andrej Shevchenko, Christoph Thiele
Human lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases 1 and 2 are located in lipid droplets where they catalyze the formation of phosphatidylcholine.
J Biol Chem, 286(24) 21330-21339 (2011)
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is synthesized by two different pathways, the Lands cycle and the Kennedy pathway. The recently identified key enzymes of the Lands cycle, lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 and 2 (LPCAT1 and -2), were reported to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and to function in lung surfactant production and in inflammation response. Here, we show in various mammalian cell lines that both enzymes additionally localize to lipid droplets (LDs), which consist of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipid, mainly PC. This dual localization is enabled by the monotopic topology of these enzymes demonstrated in this study. Furthermore, we show that LDs have the ability to locally synthesize PC and that this activity correlates with the LPCAT1 and -2 expression level. This suggests that LPCAT1 and -2 have, in addition to their known function in specialized cells, a ubiquitous role in LD-associated lipid metabolism.

Akiko Kumagai, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, William G Dunphy
Direct regulation of Treslin by cyclin-dependent kinase is essential for the onset of DNA replication.
J Cell Biol, 193(6) 995-1007 (2011)
Treslin, a TopBP1-interacting protein, is necessary for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication in vertebrates. Association between Treslin and TopBP1 requires cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. We investigated the mechanism and functional importance of Cdk for this interaction using both X. laevis egg extracts and human cells. We found that Treslin also associated with TopBP1 in a Cdk-regulated manner in human cells and that Treslin was phosphorylated within a conserved Cdk consensus target sequence (on S976 in X. laevis and S1000 in humans). Recombinant human Cdk2-cyclin E also phosphorylated this residue of Treslin in vitro very effectively. Moreover, a mutant of Treslin that cannot undergo phosphorylation on this site showed significantly diminished binding to TopBP1. Finally, human cells harboring this mutant were severely deficient in DNA replication. Collectively, these results indicate that Cdk-mediated phosphorylation of Treslin during S phase is necessary for both its effective association with TopBP1 and its ability to promote DNA replication in human cells.

Tiago S. Balbuena, Leonardo Jo, Fernanda P Pieruzzi, Leonardo L C Dias, Vanildo Silveira, Claudete Santa-Catarina, Magno Junqueira, Jay J Thelen, Andrej Shevchenko, Eny I S Floh
Differential proteome analysis of mature and germinated embryos of Araucaria angustifolia.
Phytochemistry, 72(4-5) 302-311 (2011)
Araucaria angustifolia is an endangered Brazilian native conifer tree. The aim of the present work was to identify differentially expressed proteins between mature and germinated embryos of A. angustifolia, using one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis approaches followed by protein identification by tandem mass spectrometry. The identities of 32 differentially expressed protein spots from two dimensional gel maps were successfully determined, including proteins and enzymes involved in storage mobilization such as the vicilin-like storage protein and proteases. A label free approach, based on spectral counts, resulted in detection of 10 and 14 mature and germinated enriched proteins, respectively. Identified proteins were mainly related to energetic metabolism pathways, translational processes, oxidative stress regulation and cellular signaling. The integrated use of both strategies permitted a comprehensive protein expression overview of changes in germinated embryos in relation to matures, providing insights into the this process in a recalcitrant seed species. Applications of the data generated on the monitoring and control of in vitro somatic embryos were discussed.

Victor Spirin, Alexander Shpunt, Jan Seebacher, Marc Gentzel, Andrej Shevchenko, Steven Gygi, Shamil Sunyaev
Assigning spectrum-specific P-values to protein identifications by mass spectrometry.
Bioinformatics, 27(8) 1128-1134 (2011)
Although many methods and statistical approaches have been developed for protein identification by mass spectrometry, the problem of accurate assessment of statistical significance of protein identifications remains an open question. The main issues are as follows: (i) statistical significance of inferring peptide from experimental mass spectra must be platform independent and spectrum specific and (ii) individual spectrum matches at the peptide level must be combined into a single statistical measure at the protein level.

Sven Danckwardt, Anne-Susan Gantzert, Stephan Macher-Goeppinger, Hans Christian Probst, Marc Gentzel, Matthias Wilm, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Peter Schirmacher, Matthias W. Hentze, Andreas E Kulozik
p38 MAPK controls prothrombin expression by regulated RNA 3' end processing.
Mol Cell, 41(3) 298-310 (2011)
Thrombin is a key protease involved in blood coagulation, complement activation, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion. Although induced in many (patho-)physiological conditions, the underlying mechanisms controlling prothrombin expression remained enigmatic. We have now discovered that prothrombin expression is regulated by a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism responding to stress and inflammation. This mechanism is triggered by external stimuli that activate p38 MAPK. In turn, p38 MAPK upmodulates canonical 3' end processing components and phosphorylates the RNA-binding proteins FBP2 and FBP3, which inhibit 3' end processing of mRNAs, such as prothrombin mRNA, that bear a defined upstream sequence element (USE) in their 3'UTRs. Upon phosphorylation, FBP2 and FBP3 dissociate from the USE, making it accessible to proteins that stimulate 3' end processing. We provide in vivo evidence suggesting the importance of this mechanism in inflammatory hypercoagulation and tumor invasion. Regulated 3' end processing thus emerges as a key mechanism of gene regulation with broad biological and medical implications.

Julio Sampaio, Christian Klose, Kai Simons, Mathias J. Gerl, Christer S. Ejsing, Andrej Shevchenko
Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line
Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A., 108(5) 1903-1907 (2011)

Ronny Herzog, Dominik Schwudke, Kai Schuhmann, Julio Sampaio, Stefan R. Bornstein, Michael Schroeder, Andrej Shevchenko
A novel informatics concept for high-throughput shotgun lipidomics based on the molecular fragmentation query language.
Genome Biol, 12(1) Art. No. R8 (2011)
Shotgun lipidome profiling relies on direct mass spectrometric analysis of total lipid extracts from cells, tissues or organisms and is a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular composition of lipidomes. We present a novel informatics concept of the molecular fragmentation query language implemented within the LipidXplorer open source software kit that supports accurate quantification of individual species of any ionizable lipid class in shotgun spectra acquired on any mass spectrometry platform.

Céline Fernandez, Kai Schuhmann, Ronny Herzog, Barbara Fielding, Keith Frayn, Andrej Shevchenko, Peter James, Cecilia Holm, Kristoffer Ström
Altered desaturation and elongation of fatty acids in hormone-sensitive lipase null mice.
PLoS ONE, 6(6) Art. No. e21603 (2011)
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue, where it plays an important role in catecholamine-stimulated hydrolysis of stored lipids, thus mobilizing fatty acids. HSL exhibits broad substrate specificity and besides acylglycerides it hydrolyzes cholesteryl esters, retinyl esters and lipoidal esters. Despite its role in fatty acid mobilization, HSL null mice have been shown to be resistant to diet-induced obesity. The aim of this study was to define lipid profiles in plasma, white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver of HSL null mice, in order to better understand the role of this multifunctional enzyme.

Sider Penkov✳︎, Fanny Mende✳︎, Vyacheslav Zagoriy, Cihan Erkut, René Martin, Ulrike Pässler, Kai Schuhmann, Dominik Schwudke, Margit Gruner, Jana Mäntler, Thomas Müller-Reichert, Andrej Shevchenko, Hans-Joachim Knölker, Teymuras V. Kurzchalia
Maradolipids: Diacyltrehalose Glycolipids Specific to Dauer Larva in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 49(49) 9430-9435 (2010)

Maria Carvalho, Dominik Schwudke, Julio Sampaio, Wilhelm Palm, Isabelle Riezman, Gautam Dey, Gagan D Gupta, Satyajit Mayor, Howard Riezman, Andrej Shevchenko, Teymuras V. Kurzchalia#, Suzanne Eaton#
Survival strategies of a sterol auxotroph.
Development, 137(21) 3675-3685 (2010)
The high sterol concentration in eukaryotic cell membranes is thought to influence membrane properties such as permeability, fluidity and microdomain formation. Drosophila cannot synthesize sterols, but do require them for development. Does this simply reflect a requirement for sterols in steroid hormone biosynthesis, or is bulk membrane sterol also essential in Drosophila? If the latter is true, how do they survive fluctuations in sterol availability and maintain membrane homeostasis? Here, we show that Drosophila require both bulk membrane sterol and steroid hormones in order to complete adult development. When sterol availability is restricted, Drosophila larvae modulate their growth to maintain membrane sterol levels within tight limits. When dietary sterol drops below a minimal threshold, larvae arrest growth and development in a reversible manner. Strikingly, membrane sterol levels in arrested larvae are dramatically reduced (dropping sixfold on average) in most tissues except the nervous system. Thus, sterols are dispensable for maintaining the basic membrane biophysical properties required for cell viability; these functions can be performed by non-sterol lipids when sterols are unavailable. However, bulk membrane sterol is likely to have essential functions in specific tissues during development. In tissues in which sterol levels drop, the overall level of sphingolipids increases and the proportion of different sphingolipid variants is altered. These changes allow survival, but not growth, when membrane sterol levels are low. This relationship between sterols and sphingolipids could be an ancient and conserved principle of membrane homeostasis.

Ann Caroline Feike, Klara Rachor, Marc Gentzel, Alexandra Schambony
Wnt5a/Ror2-induced upregulation of xPAPC requires xShcA.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 400(4) 500-506 (2010)
Ror receptor-tyrosine kinases act as Wnt-5a receptors in beta-catenin independent Wnt-signaling pathways. In Xenopus, expression of xPAPC is regulated by a Wnt-5a/Ror2 pathway, which resembles typical signaling cascades downstream of receptor-tyrosine kinases. Here, we have identified the phospho-tyrosine binding protein ShcA as an intracellular binding partner of Ror2. ShcA binds to a conserved motif in Ror2 via its SH2-domain. Wnt-5a induces clustering of Ror2 in the cell membrane and recruitment of ShcA to the Ror2 receptor complex. We further show that ShcA is co-expressed with Ror2 in developing Xenopus embryos and ShcA is required for Wnt-5a/Ror2 mediated upregulation of xPAPC, demonstrating the functional relevance of this interaction.

Christian Klose, Christer S. Ejsing, Anna J. Garcia-Sáez, Hermann-Josef Kaiser, Julio Sampaio, Michal Surma, Andrej Shevchenko, Petra Schwille, Kai Simons
Yeast lipids can phase-separate into micrometer-scale membrane domains
J Biol Chem, 285(39) 30224-30232 (2010)
The lipid raft concept proposes that biological membranes have the potential to form functional domains based on a selective interaction between sphingolipids and sterols. These domains seem to be involved in signal transduction and vesicular sorting of proteins and lipids. Although there is biochemical evidence for lipid raft-dependent protein and lipid sorting in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, direct evidence for an interaction between yeast sphingolipids and the yeast sterol ergosterol, resulting in membrane domain formation, is lacking. Here we show that model membranes formed from yeast total lipid extracts possess an inherent self-organization potential resulting in liquid-disordered-liquid-ordered phase coexistence at physiologically relevant temperature. Analyses of lipid extracts from mutants defective in sphingolipid metabolism as well as reconstitution of purified yeast lipids in model membranes of defined composition suggest that membrane domain formation depends on specific interactions between yeast sphingolipids and ergosterol. Taken together, these results provide a mechanistic explanation for lipid raft-dependent lipid and protein sorting in yeast.

Andrej Shevchenko, Kai Simons
Lipidomics: coming to grips with lipid diversity.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 11(8) 593-598 (2010)
Although lipids are biomolecules with seemingly simple chemical structures, the molecular composition of the cellular lipidome is complex and, currently, poorly understood. The exact mechanisms of how compositional complexity affects cell homeostasis and its regulation also remain unclear. This emerging field is developing sensitive mass spectrometry technologies for the quantitative characterization of the lipidome. Here, we argue that lipidomics will become an essential tool kit in cell and developmental biology, molecular medicine and nutrition.

Adam Reich✳︎#, Dominik Schwudke✳︎, Michael Meurer, Bodo Lehmann, Andrej Shevchenko#
Lipidome of narrow-band ultraviolet B irradiated keratinocytes shows apoptotic hallmarks.
Exp Dermatol, 19(8) 103-110 (2010)
UV light triggers a variety of biological responses in irradiated keratinocytes that might be associated with global perturbation of their lipidome. However, lipids that are specifically affected and the exact molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood.

Iris Eke✳︎, Ulrike Koch✳︎, Stephanie Hehlgans, Veit Sandfort, Fabio Stanchi, Daniel Zips, Michael Baumann, Anna Shevchenko, Christian Pilarsky, Michael Haase, Gustavo Baretton, Véronique Calleja, Banafshé Larijani, Reinhard Fässler, Nils Cordes
PINCH1 regulates Akt1 activation and enhances radioresistance by inhibiting PP1alpha.
J Clin Invest, 120(7) 2516-2527 (2010)
Tumor cell resistance to ionizing radiation and chemotherapy is a major obstacle in cancer therapy. One factor contributing to this is integrin-mediated adhesion to ECM. The adapter protein particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine-rich 1 (PINCH1) is recruited to integrin adhesion sites and promotes cell survival, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood. Here we have shown that PINCH1 is expressed at elevated levels in human tumors of diverse origins relative to normal tissue. Furthermore, PINCH1 promoted cell survival upon treatment with ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo by perpetuating Akt1 phosphorylation and activity. Mechanistically, PINCH1 was found to directly bind to protein phosphatase 1alpha (PP1alpha) - an Akt1-regulating protein - and inhibit PP1alpha activity, resulting in increased Akt1 phosphorylation and enhanced radioresistance. Thus, our data suggest that targeting signaling molecules such as PINCH1 that function downstream of focal adhesions (the complexes that mediate tumor cell adhesion to ECM) may overcome radio- and chemoresistance, providing new therapeutic approaches for cancer.

Mikolaj Slabicki, Mirko Theis, Dragomir Krastev, Sergey Samsonov, Emeline Mundwiller, Magno Junqueira, Maciej Paszkowski-Rogacz, Joan Teyra, Anne-Kristin Heninger, Ina Poser, Fabienne Prieur, Jérémy Truchetto, Christian Confavreux, Cécilia Marelli, Alexandra Durr, Jean Philippe Camdessanche, Alexis Brice, Andrej Shevchenko, Maria Teresa Pisabarro, Giovanni Stevanin, Frank Buchholz
A genome-scale DNA repair RNAi screen identifies SPG48 as a novel gene associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia.
PLoS Biol, 8(6) Art. No. e1000408 (2010)
Open Access PDF DOI
DNA repair is essential to maintain genome integrity, and genes with roles in DNA repair are frequently mutated in a variety of human diseases. Repair via homologous recombination typically restores the original DNA sequence without introducing mutations, and a number of genes that are required for homologous recombination DNA double-strand break repair (HR-DSBR) have been identified. However, a systematic analysis of this important DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells has not been reported. Here, we describe a genome-scale endoribonuclease-prepared short interfering RNA (esiRNA) screen for genes involved in DNA double strand break repair. We report 61 genes that influenced the frequency of HR-DSBR and characterize in detail one of the genes that decreased the frequency of HR-DSBR. We show that the gene KIAA0415 encodes a putative helicase that interacts with SPG11 and SPG15, two proteins mutated in hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We identify mutations in HSP patients, discovering KIAA0415/SPG48 as a novel HSP-associated gene, and show that a KIAA0415/SPG48 mutant cell line is more sensitive to DNA damaging drugs. We present the first genome-scale survey of HR-DSBR in mammalian cells providing a dataset that should accelerate the discovery of novel genes with roles in DNA repair and associated medical conditions. The discovery that proteins forming a novel protein complex are required for efficient HR-DSBR and are mutated in patients suffering from HSP suggests a link between HSP and DNA repair.

Indranil Sinha✳︎, Luke Buchanan✳︎, Michelle Rönnerblad, Carolina Bonilla, Mickaël Durand-Dubief, Andrej Shevchenko, Michael Grunstein, A. Francis Stewart, Karl Ekwall
Genome-wide mapping of histone modifications and mass spectrometry reveal H4 acetylation bias and H3K36 methylation at gene promoters in fission yeast
Epigenomics, 2(3) 377-393 (2010)
Aims: To map histone modifications with unprecedented resolution both globally and locus-specifically, and to link modification patterns to gene expression. Materials & methods: Using correlations between quantitative mass spectrometry and chromatin immunoprecipitation/microarray analyses, we have mapped histone post-translational modifications in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Results: Acetylations at lysine 9, 18 and 27 of histone H3 give the best positive correlations with gene expression in this organism. Using clustering analysis and gene ontology search tools, we identified promoter histone modification patterns that characterize several classes of gene function. For example, gene promoters of genes involved in cytokinesis have high H3K36me2 and low H3K4me2, whereas the converse pattern is found ar promoters of gene involved in positive regulation of the cell cycle. We detected acetylation of H4 preferentially at lysine 16 followed by lysine 12, 8 and 5. Our analysis shows that this H4 acetylation bias in the coding regions is dependent upon gene length and linked to gene expression. Our analysis also reveals a role for H3K36 methylation at gene promoters where it functions in a crosstalk between the histone methyltransferase Set2KMT3 and the histone deacetylase Clr6, which removes H3K27ac leading to repression of transcription. Conclusion: Histone modification patterns could be linked to gene expression in fission yeast.

David K. Breslow, Sean R. Collins, Bernd Bodenmiller, Ruedi Aebersold, Kai Simons, Andrej Shevchenko, Christer S. Ejsing, Jonathan S. Weissman
Orm family proteins mediate sphingolipid homeostasis
Nature, 463(7284) 1048-1053 (2010)
Despite the essential roles of sphingolipids both as structural components of membranes and critical signalling molecules, we have a limited understanding of how cells sense and regulate their levels. Here we reveal the function in sphingolipid metabolism of the ORM genes (known as ORMDL genes in humans)—a conserved gene family that includes ORMDL3, which has recently been identified as a potential risk factor for childhood asthma. Starting from an unbiased functional genomic approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identify Orm proteins as negative regulators of sphingolipid synthesis that form a conserved complex with serine palmitoyltransferase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme in sphingolipid production. We also define a regulatory pathway in which phosphorylation of Orm proteins relieves their inhibitory activity when sphingolipid production is disrupted. Changes in ORM gene expression or mutations to their phosphorylation sites cause dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism. Our work identifies the Orm proteins as critical mediators of sphingolipid homeostasis and raises the possibility that sphingolipid misregulation contributes to the development of childhood asthma.

Vincent Gache✳︎, Patrice Waridel✳︎, Christof Winter, Aurelie Juhem, Michael Schroeder, Andrej Shevchenko, Andrei V. Popov
Xenopus meiotic microtubule-associated interactome.
PLoS ONE, 5(2) Art. No. e9248 (2010)
In metazoan oocytes the assembly of a microtubule-based spindle depends on the activity of a large number of accessory non-tubulin proteins, many of which remain unknown. In this work we isolated the microtubule-bound proteins from Xenopus eggs. Using mass spectrometry we identified 318 proteins, only 43 of which are known to bind microtubules. To integrate our results, we compiled for the first time a network of the meiotic microtubule-related interactome. The map reveals numerous interactions between spindle microtubules and the newly identified non-tubulin spindle components and highlights proteins absent from the mitotic spindle proteome. To validate newly identified spindle components, we expressed as GFP-fusions nine proteins identified by us and for first time demonstrated that Mgc68500, Loc398535, Nif3l1bp1/THOC7, LSM14A/RAP55A, TSGA14/CEP41, Mgc80361 and Mgc81475 are associated with spindles in egg extracts or in somatic cells. Furthermore, we showed that transfection of HeLa cells with siRNAs, corresponding to the human orthologue of Mgc81475 dramatically perturbs spindle formation in HeLa cells. These results show that our approach to the identification of the Xenopus microtubule-associated proteome yielded bona fide factors with a role in spindle assembly.

Akiko Kumagai, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, William G Dunphy
Treslin collaborates with TopBP1 in triggering the initiation of DNA replication.
Cell, 140(3) 349-359 (2010)
TopBP1 has important roles in both DNA replication and checkpoint regulation in vertebrates. We have identified a protein called Treslin that associates with TopBP1 in Xenopus egg extracts. Depletion of Treslin from egg extracts strongly inhibits chromosomal DNA replication. Binding of Treslin to chromatin in egg extracts occurs independently of TopBP1. However, loading of the initiator protein Cdc45 onto chromatin cannot take place in the absence of Treslin. Prior to the initiation of DNA replication, Treslin associates with TopBP1 in a Cdk2-dependent manner. Ablation of Treslin from human cells also strongly inhibits DNA replication. Taken together, these results indicate that Treslin and TopBP1 collaborate in the Cdk2-mediated loading of Cdc45 onto replication origins. Thus, Treslin regulates a pivotal step in the initiation of DNA replication in vertebrates.

Magno Junqueira
Systematic characterization of mammalian protein complexes by shotgun liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
Ph.D. Thesis,Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany (2009)

Luke Buchanan, Mickaël Durand-Dubief, Assen Roguev, Cagri Sakalar, Brian Wilhelm, Annelie Strålfors, Anna Shevchenko, Rein Aasland, Andrej Shevchenko, Karl Ekwall, A. Francis Stewart
The Schizosaccharomyces pombe JmjC-protein, Msc1, prevents H2A.Z localization in centromeric and subtelomeric chromatin domains.
PLoS Genet, 5(11) Art. No. e1000726 (2009)
Eukaryotic genomes are repetitively packaged into chromatin by nucleosomes, however they are regulated by the differences between nucleosomes, which establish various chromatin states. Local chromatin cues direct the inheritance and propagation of chromatin status via self-reinforcing epigenetic mechanisms. Replication-independent histone exchange could potentially perturb chromatin status if histone exchange chaperones, such as Swr1C, loaded histone variants into wrong sites. Here we show that in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, like Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Swr1C is required for loading H2A.Z into specific sites, including the promoters of lowly expressed genes. However S. pombe Swr1C has an extra subunit, Msc1, which is a JumonjiC-domain protein of the Lid/Jarid1 family. Deletion of Msc1 did not disrupt the S. pombe Swr1C or its ability to bind and load H2A.Z into euchromatin, however H2A.Z was ectopically found in the inner centromere and in subtelomeric chromatin. Normally this subtelomeric region not only lacks H2A.Z but also shows uniformly lower levels of H3K4me2, H4K5, and K12 acetylation than euchromatin and disproportionately contains the most lowly expressed genes during vegetative growth, including many meiotic-specific genes. Genes within and adjacent to subtelomeric chromatin become overexpressed in the absence of either Msc1, Swr1, or paradoxically H2A.Z itself. We also show that H2A.Z is N-terminally acetylated before, and lysine acetylated after, loading into chromatin and that it physically associates with the Nap1 histone chaperone. However, we find a negative correlation between the genomic distributions of H2A.Z and Nap1/Hrp1/Hrp3, suggesting that the Nap1 chaperones remove H2A.Z from chromatin. These data describe H2A.Z action in S. pombe and identify a new mode of chromatin surveillance and maintenance based on negative regulation of histone variant misincorporation.

Marina Le Guédard, Jean-Jacques Bessoule, Valérie Boyer, Sophie Ayciriex, Gisèle Velours, Willem Kulik, Christer S. Ejsing, Andrej Shevchenko, Denis Coulon, René Lessire, Eric Testet
PSI1 is responsible for the stearic acid enrichment that is characteristic of phosphatidylinositol in yeast.
FEBS J, 276(21) 6412-6424 (2009)
In yeast, both phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine are synthesized from cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol. Because, as in other eukaryotes, phosphatidylinositol contains more saturated fatty acids than phosphatidylserine (and other phospholipids), it has been hypothesized that either phosphatidylinositol is synthesized from distinct cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol molecules, or that, after its synthesis, it is modified by a hypothetical acyltransferase that incorporates saturated fatty acid into neo-synthesized molecules of phosphatidylinositol. We used database search methods to identify an acyltransferase that could catalyze such an activity. Among the various proteins that we studied, we found that Psi1p (phosphatidylinositol stearoyl incorporating 1 protein) is required for the incorporation of stearate into phosphatidylinositol because GC and MS analyses of psi1Delta lipids revealed an almost complete disappearance of stearic (but not of palmitic acid) at the sn-1 position of this phospholipid. Moreover, it was found that, whereas glycerol 3-phosphate, lysophosphatidic acid and 1-acyl lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase activities were similar in microsomal membranes isolated from wild-type and psi1Delta cells, microsomal membranes isolated from psi1Delta cells are devoid of the sn-2-acyl-1-lysolysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase activity that is present in microsomal membranes isolated from wild-type cells. Moreover, after the expression of PSI1 in transgenic psi1Delta cells, the sn-2-acyl-1-lysolysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase activity was recovered, and was accompanied by a strong increase in the stearic acid content of lysophosphatidylinositol. As previously suggested for phosphatidylinositol from animal cells (which contains almost exclusively stearic acid as the saturated fatty acid), the results obtained in the present study demonstrate that the existence of phosphatidylinositol species containing stearic acid in yeast results from a remodeling of neo-synthesized molecules of phosphatidylinositol.

Dirk Benndorf, Carsten Vogt, Nico Jehmlich, Yvonne Schmidt, Henrik Thomas, Gary Woffendin, Andrej Shevchenko, Hans-Hermann Richnow, Martin von Bergen
Improving protein extraction and separation methods for investigating the metaproteome of anaerobic benzene communities within sediments.
Biodegradation, 20(6) 737-750 (2009)
BTEX compounds such as benzene are frequent soil and groundwater contaminants that are easily biodegraded under oxic conditions by bacteria. In contrast, benzene is rather recalcitrant under anaerobic conditions. The analysis of anoxic degradation is often hampered by difficult sampling conditions, limited amounts of biomass and interference of matrix compounds with proteomic approaches. In order to improve the procedure for protein extraction we established a scheme consisting of the following steps: dissociation of cells from lava granules, cell lysis by ultrasonication and purification of proteins by phenol extraction. The 2D-gels revealed a resolution of about 240 proteins spots and the spot patterns showed strong matrix dependence, but still differences were detectable between the metaproteomes obtained after growth on benzene and benzoate. Using direct data base search as well as de novo sequencing approaches we were able to identify several proteins. An enoyl-CoA hydratase with cross species homology to Azoarcus evansii, is known to be involved in the anoxic degradation of xenobiotics. Thereby the identification confirmed that this procedure has the capacity to analyse the metaproteome of an anoxic living microbial community.

Stefano Maffini, Ana R R Maia, Amity L Manning, Zoltan Maliga, Ana L Pereira, Magno Junqueira, Andrej Shevchenko, Anthony A. Hyman, John R. Yates, Niels Galjart, Duane A Compton, Helder Maiato
Motor-independent targeting of CLASPs to kinetochores by CENP-E promotes microtubule turnover and poleward flux.
Curr Biol, 19(18) 1566-1572 (2009)
Efficient chromosome segregation during mitosis relies on the coordinated activity of molecular motors with proteins that regulate kinetochore attachments to dynamic spindle microtubules [1]. CLASPs are conserved kinetochore- and microtubule-associated proteins encoded by two paralog genes, clasp1 and clasp2, and have been previously implicated in the regulation of kinetochore microtubule dynamics [2-4]. However, it remains unknown how CLASPs work in concert with other proteins to form a functional kinetochore microtubule interface. Here we have identified mitotic interactors of human CLASP1 via a proteomic approach. Among these, the microtubule plus-end-directed motor CENP-E [5] was found to form a complex with CLASP1 that colocalizes to multiple structures of the mitotic apparatus in human cells. We found that CENP-E recruits both CLASP1 and CLASP2 to kinetochores independently of its motor activity or the presence of microtubules. Depletion of CLASPs or CENP-E by RNA interference in human cells causes a significant and comparable reduction of kinetochore microtubule poleward flux and turnover rates and rescues spindle bipolarity in Kif2a-depleted cells. We conclude that CENP-E integrates two critical functions that are important for accurate chromosome movement and spindle architecture: one relying directly on its motor activity, and the other involving the targeting of key microtubule regulators to kinetochores.

Marcus Ståhlman✳︎, Christer S. Ejsing✳︎, Kirill V Tarasov, Jeanna Perman, Jan Borén, Kim Ekroos
High-throughput shotgun lipidomics by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, 877(26) 2664-2672 (2009)
Technological advances in mass spectrometry and meticulous method development have produced several shotgun lipidomic approaches capable of characterizing lipid species by direct analysis of total lipid extracts. Shotgun lipidomics by hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry allows the absolute quantification of hundreds of molecular glycerophospholipid species, glycerolipid species, sphingolipid species and sterol lipids. Future applications in clinical cohort studies demand detailed lipid molecule information and the application of high-throughput lipidomics platforms. In this review we describe a novel high-throughput shotgun lipidomic platform based on 96-well robot-assisted lipid extraction, automated sample infusion by mircofluidic-based nanoelectrospray ionization, and quantitative multiple precursor ion scanning analysis on a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Using this platform to compile comprehensive lipid arrays associated with metabolic dysfunctions is a powerful strategy for pinpointing the mechanistic details by which alterations in tissue-specific lipid metabolism are directly linked to the etiology of many lipid-mediated disorders.

Lucie Kalvodova✳︎, Julio Sampaio✳︎, Sandra Cordo, Christer S. Ejsing, Andrej Shevchenko, Kai Simons
The lipidomes of vesicular stomatitis virus, semliki forest virus, and the host plasma membrane analyzed by quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry.
J Virol, 83(16) 7996-8003 (2009)
Although enveloped virus assembly in the host cell is a crucial step in the virus life cycle, it remains poorly understood. One issue is how viruses include lipids in their membranes during budding from infected host cells. To analyze this issue, we took advantage of the fact that baby hamster kidney cells can be infected by two different viruses, namely, vesicular stomatitis virus and Semliki Forest virus, from the Rhabdoviridae and Togaviridae families, respectively. We purified the host plasma membrane and the two different viruses after exit from the host cells and analyzed the lipid compositions of the membranes by quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry. We observed that the lipid compositions of these otherwise structurally different viruses are virtually indistinguishable, and only slight differences were detected between the viral lipid composition and that of the plasma membrane. Taken together, the facts that the lipid compositions of the two viruses are so similar and that they strongly resemble the composition of the plasma membrane suggest that these viruses exert little selection in including lipids in their envelopes.

Christina Valcu, Magno Junqueira, Andrej Shevchenko, Katja Schlink
Comparative proteomic analysis of responses to pathogen infection and wounding in Fagus sylvatica.
J Proteome Res, 8(8) 4077-4091 (2009)
Defense responses of Fagus sylvatica seedlings elicited by infection with the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola and root or leaf wounding were compared at local and systemic levels in differential display experiments using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by homology-driven mass spectrometric identification of proteins. A total of 68 protein spots were identified representing 51 protein functions related to protein synthesis and processing, energy, primary and secondary metabolism, as well as signal transduction, stress and defense. Changes in the abundance of root and leaf proteins partly overlapped between plant responses to the different stressors. The response to pathogen infection was rather late, weak and unspecific and accompanied by adjustments of the energy and primary metabolism which suggested either a lack of recognition or a suppression of host's defense reaction by the invading pathogen. The response to wounding involved changes in the basal metabolism as well as activation of defense mechanisms. Both types of changes were largely specific to the wounded organ. Similarities between the defense mechanisms activated by root infection and root wounding were also observed.

Hilde Raa, Stine Grimmer, Dominik Schwudke, Jonas Bergan, Sébastien Wälchli, Tore Skotland, Andrej Shevchenko, Kirsten Sandvig
Glycosphingolipid requirements for endosome-to-golgi transport of shiga toxin.
Traffic, 10(7) 868-882 (2009)
Shiga toxin binds to globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptors on the target cell surface. To enter the cytosol, Shiga toxin is dependent on endocytic uptake, retrograde transport to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum before translocation of the enzymatically active moiety to the cytosol. Here, we have investigated the importance of newly synthesized glycosphingolipids for the uptake and intracellular transport of Shiga toxin in HEp-2 cells. Inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis by treatment with either PDMP or Fumonisin B(1) for 24-48 h strongly reduced the transport of Gb3-bound Shiga toxin from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. This was associated with a change in localization of sorting nexins 1 and 2, and accompanied by a protection against the toxin. In contrast, there was no effect on transport or toxicity of the plant toxin ricin. High-resolution mass spectrometry revealed a 2-fold reduction in Gb3 at conditions giving a 10-fold inhibition of Shiga toxin transport to the Golgi. Furthermore, mass spectrometry showed that the treatment with PDMP (DL-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol) and Fumonisin B(1) among other changes of the lipidome, affected the relative content of the different glycosphingolipid species. The largest depletion was observed for the hexosylceramide species with the N-amidated fatty acid 16:0, whereas hexosylceramide species with 24:1 were less affected. Quantitative lipid profiling with mass spectrometry demonstrated that PDMP did not influence the content of sphingomyelins, phospholipids and plasmalogens. In contrast, Fumonisin B(1) affected the amount and composition of sphingomyelin and glycolipids and altered the profiles of phospholipids and plasmalogens.

Marina Edelson-Averbukh, Andrej Shevchenko, Rüdiger Pipkorn, Wolf D Lehmann
Gas-phase intramolecular phosphate shift in phosphotyrosine-containing peptide monoanions.
Anal Chem, 81(11) 4369-4381 (2009)
Phosphotyrosine-containing peptide monoanions [M-H](-) exhibit extensive neutral loss of phosphoric acid (98 Da) upon quadrupole time-of-flight and ion-trap collision-induced dissociation (CID). In contrast, a neutral loss of metaphosphoric acid HPO(3) (80 Da) is negligible from the deprotonated phosphotyrosine peptides. The efficient H(3)PO(4) release is unexpected, given the structure of phosphotyrosine. Our study reveals that the abundant [M-H-98](-) product ions of pTyr-peptides are not a result of consecutive losses of HPO(3) and H(2)O but, rather, are induced by an intramolecular interaction of the phosphotyrosine phosphate with deprotonated peptide functions such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, and to a small extent, amide. As a result, an internal phosphotyrosine phosphate shift occurs, and the obtained phosphorylated functionalities undergo elimination of H(3)PO(4) to give rise to the [M-H-98](-) fragments. The mechanism proposed for the phosphoric acid neutral loss is based on extensive CID studies of Ala-substituted model phosphorylated peptides and oxygen-18 labeling. The proposed mechanistic pathway explains the fact that the pTyr phosphate transfer and the subsequent H(3)PO(4) neutral loss are not observed for multiply charged anions of pTyr-peptides. Monoanions of pSer-containing peptides undergo the intramolecular phosphate shift as well, although its efficiency is much lower compared to the aromatic phosphorylation sites. These observations facilitate correct identification of pSer-, pThr-, and pTyr-peptides in CID studies. This work demonstrates that the established phosphate-specific neutral loss fragmentation rules of protonated pTyr-peptides cannot be applied to the CID spectra of their [M-H](-) ions.

Hae Yong Yoo, Akiko Kumagai, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, William G Dunphy
The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex mediates activation of TopBP1 by ATM.
Mol Biol Cell, 20(9) 2351-2360 (2009)
The activation of ATR-ATRIP in response to double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) depends upon ATM in human cells and Xenopus egg extracts. One important aspect of this dependency involves regulation of TopBP1 by ATM. In Xenopus egg extracts, ATM associates with TopBP1 and thereupon phosphorylates it on S1131. This phosphorylation enhances the capacity of TopBP1 to activate the ATR-ATRIP complex. We show that TopBP1 also interacts with the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex in egg extracts in a checkpoint-regulated manner. This interaction involves the Nbs1 subunit of the complex. ATM can no longer interact with TopBP1 in Nbs1-depleted egg extracts, which suggests that the MRN complex helps to bridge ATM and TopBP1 together. The association between TopBP1 and Nbs1 involves the first pair of BRCT repeats in TopBP1. In addition, the two tandem BRCT repeats of Nbs1 are required for this binding. Functional studies with mutated forms of TopBP1 and Nbs1 suggested that the BRCT-dependent association of these proteins is critical for a normal checkpoint response to DSBs. These findings suggest that the MRN complex is a crucial mediator in the process whereby ATM promotes the TopBP1-dependent activation of ATR-ATRIP in response to DSBs.

Robin W. Klemm✳︎, Christer S. Ejsing✳︎, Michal Surma, Hermann-Josef Kaiser, Mathias J. Gerl, Julio Sampaio, Quentin de Robillard, Charles Ferguson, Tomasz J. Proszynski, Andrej Shevchenko, Kai Simons
Segregation of sphingolipids and sterols during formation of secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network.
J Cell Biol, 185(4) 601-612 (2009)
The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is the major sorting station in the secretory pathway of all eukaryotic cells. How the TGN sorts proteins and lipids to generate the enrichment of sphingolipids and sterols at the plasma membrane is poorly understood. To address this fundamental question in membrane trafficking, we devised an immunoisolation procedure for specific recovery of post-Golgi secretory vesicles transporting a transmembrane raft protein from the TGN to the cell surface in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a novel quantitative shotgun lipidomics approach, we could demonstrate that TGN sorting selectively enriched ergosterol and sphingolipid species in the immunoisolated secretory vesicles. This finding, for the first time, indicates that the TGN exhibits the capacity to sort membrane lipids. Furthermore, the observation that the immunoisolated vesicles exhibited a higher membrane order than the late Golgi membrane, as measured by C-Laurdan spectrophotometry, strongly suggests that lipid rafts play a role in the TGN-sorting machinery.

Mirko Theis, Mikolaj Slabicki, Magno Junqueira, Maciej Paszkowski-Rogacz, Jana Sontheimer, Ralf Kittler, Anne-Kristin Heninger, Timo Glatter, Kristi Kruusmaa, Ina Poser, Anthony A. Hyman, Maria Teresa Pisabarro, Matthias Gstaiger, Rudolf Aebersold, Andrej Shevchenko, Frank Buchholz
Comparative profiling identifies C13orf3 as a component of the Ska complex required for mammalian cell division.
EMBO J, 28(10) 1453-1465 (2009)
Proliferation of mammalian cells requires the coordinated function of many proteins to accurately divide a cell into two daughter cells. Several RNAi screens have identified previously uncharacterised genes that are implicated in mammalian cell division. The molecular function for these genes needs to be investigated to place them into pathways. Phenotypic profiling is a useful method to assign putative functions to uncharacterised genes. Here, we show that the analysis of protein localisation is useful to refine a phenotypic profile. We show the utility of this approach by defining a function of the previously uncharacterised gene C13orf3 during cell division. C13orf3 localises to centrosomes, the mitotic spindle, kinetochores, spindle midzone, and the cleavage furrow during cell division and is specifically phosphorylated during mitosis. Furthermore, C13orf3 is required for centrosome integrity and anaphase onset. Depletion by RNAi leads to mitotic arrest in metaphase with an activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint and loss of sister chromatid cohesion. Proteomic analyses identify C13orf3 (Ska3) as a new component of the Ska complex and show a direct interaction with a regulatory subunit of the protein phosphatase PP2A. All together, these data identify C13orf3 as an important factor for metaphase to anaphase progression and highlight the potential of combined RNAi screening and protein localisation analyses.

Li Ding, Maciej Paszkowski-Rogacz, Anja Nitzsche, Mikolaj Slabicki, Anne-Kristin Heninger, Ingrid de Vries, Ralf Kittler, Magno Junqueira, Andrej Shevchenko, Herbert Schulz, Norbert Hubner, Michael Xavier Doss, Agapios Sachinidis, Juergen Hescheler, Roberto Iacone, Konstantinos Anastassiadis, A. Francis Stewart, Maria Teresa Pisabarro, Antonio Caldarelli, Ina Poser, Mirko Theis, Frank Buchholz
A genome-scale RNAi screen for Oct4 modulators defines a role of the Paf1 complex for embryonic stem cell identity.
Cell Stem Cell, 4(5) 403-415 (2009)
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) maintain self-renewal while ensuring a rapid response to differentiation cues. The identification of genes maintaining ESC identity is important to develop these cells for their potential therapeutic use. Here we report a genome-scale RNAi screen for a global survey of genes affecting ESC identity via alteration of Oct4 expression. Factors with the strongest effect on Oct4 expression included components of the Paf1 complex, a protein complex associated with RNA polymerase II. Using a combination of proteomics, expression profiling, and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that the Paf1C binds to promoters of key pluripotency genes, where it is required to maintain a transcriptionally active chromatin structure. The Paf1C is developmentally regulated and blocks ESC differentiation upon overexpression, and the knockdown in ESCs causes expression changes similar to Oct4 or Nanog depletions. We propose that the Paf1C plays an important role in maintaining ESC identity.

Kanako Saito✳︎, Veronique Dubreuil✳︎, Yoko Arai, Michaela Wilsch-Bräuninger, Dominik Schwudke, Gesine Saher, Takaki Miyata, Georg Breier, Christoph Thiele, Andrej Shevchenko, Klaus-Armin Nave, Wieland B. Huttner
Ablation of cholesterol biosynthesis in neural stem cells increases their VEGF expression and angiogenesis but causes neuron apoptosis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A., 106(20) 8350-8355 (2009)
Although sufficient cholesterol supply is known to be crucial for neurons in the developing mammalian brain, the cholesterol requirement of neural stem and progenitor cells in the embryonic central nervous system has not been addressed. Here we have conditionally ablated the activity of squalene synthase (SQS), a key enzyme for endogenous cholesterol production, in the neural stem and progenitor cells of the ventricular zone (VZ) of the embryonic mouse brain. Mutant embryos exhibited a reduced brain size due to the atrophy of the neuronal layers, and died at birth. Analyses of the E11.5-E15.5 dorsal telencephalon and diencephalon revealed that this atrophy was due to massive apoptosis of newborn neurons, implying that this progeny of the SQS-ablated neural stem and progenitor cells was dependent on endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis for survival. Interestingly, the neural stem and progenitor cells of the VZ, the primary target of SQS inactivation, did not undergo significant apoptosis. Instead, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in these cells was strongly upregulated via a hypoxia-inducible factor-1-independent pathway, and angiogenesis in the VZ was increased. Consistent with an increased supply of lipoproteins to these cells, the level of lipid droplets containing triacylglycerides with unsaturated fatty acyl chains was found to be elevated. Our study establishes a direct link between intracellular cholesterol levels, VEGF expression, and angiogenesis. Moreover, our data reveal a hitherto unknown compensatory process by which the neural stem and progenitor cells of the developing mammalian brain evade the detrimental consequences of impaired endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis.

Tiago S. Balbuena, Vanildo Silveira, Magno Junqueira, Leonardo L C Dias, Claudete Santa-Catarina, Andrej Shevchenko, Eny I S Floh
Changes in the 2-DE protein profile during zygotic embryogenesis in the Brazilian Pine (Araucaria angustifolia).
J Proteomics, 72(3) 337-352 (2009)
Araucaria angustifolia is the only native conifer of economic importance in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Due to a clear-cutting form of exploitation this species has received the status of vulnerable. The aim of this work was to investigate and characterize changes in protein expression profile during seed development of this endangered species. For this, the proteome of developing seeds was characterized by 2-DE and LC-MS/MS. Ninety six proteins were confidently identified and classified according to their biological function and expression profile. Overaccumulated proteins in early seed development indicated a higher control on oxidative stress metabolism during this phase. In contrast, highly expressed proteins in late stages revealed an active metabolism, leading to carbon assimilation and storage compounds accumulation. Comprehensive protein expression profiles and identification of overaccumulated proteins provide new insights into the process of embryogenesis in this recalcitrant species. Considerations on the improvement and control of somatic embryogenesis through medium manipulation and protein markers screening using data generated are also discussed.

Andrej Shevchenko, Christina Valcu, Magno Junqueira
Tools for exploring the proteomosphere.
J Proteomics, 72(2) 137-144 (2009)
Homology-driven proteomics aims at exploring the proteomes of organisms with unsequenced genomes that, despite rapid genomic sequencing progress, still represent the overwhelming majority of species in the biosphere. Methodologies have been developed to enable automated LC-MS/MS identifications of unknown proteins, which rely on the sequence similarity between the fragmented peptides and reference database sequences from phylogenetically related species. However, because full sequences of matched proteins are not available and matching specificity is reduced, estimating protein abundances should become the obligatory element of homology-driven proteomics pipelines to circumvent the interpretation bias towards proteins from evolutionary conserved families.

Tobias Zech✳︎, Christer S. Ejsing✳︎, Katharina Gaus, Ben de Wet, Andrej Shevchenko, Kai Simons, Thomas Harder
Accumulation of raft lipids in T-cell plasma membrane domains engaged in TCR signalling.
EMBO J, 28(5) 466-476 (2009)
Activating stimuli for T lymphocytes are transmitted through plasma membrane domains that form at T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signalling foci. Here, we determined the molecular lipid composition of immunoisolated TCR activation domains. We observed that they accumulate cholesterol, sphingomyelin and saturated phosphatidylcholine species as compared with control plasma membrane fragments. This provides, for the first time, direct evidence that TCR activation domains comprise a distinct molecular lipid composition reminiscent of liquid-ordered raft phases in model membranes. Interestingly, TCR activation domains were also enriched in plasmenyl phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine. Modulating the T-cell lipidome with polyunsaturated fatty acids impaired the plasma membrane condensation at TCR signalling foci and resulted in a perturbed molecular lipid composition. These results correlate the accumulation of specific molecular lipid species with the specific plasma membrane condensation at sites of TCR activation and with early TCR activation responses.

Juergen Graessler✳︎, Dominik Schwudke✳︎, Peter E Schwarz, Ronny Herzog, Andrej Shevchenko, Stefan R. Bornstein
Top-down lipidomics reveals ether lipid deficiency in blood plasma of hypertensive patients.
PLoS ONE, 4(7) Art. No. e6261 (2009)
BACKGROUND: Dyslipoproteinemia, obesity and insulin resistance are integrative constituents of the metabolic syndrome and are major risk factors for hypertension. The objective of this study was to determine whether hypertension specifically affects the plasma lipidome independently and differently from the effects induced by obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened the plasma lipidome of 19 men with hypertension and 51 normotensive male controls by top-down shotgun profiling on a LTQ Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer. The analysis encompassed 95 lipid species of 10 major lipid classes. Obesity resulted in generally higher lipid load in blood plasma, while the content of tri- and diacylglycerols increased dramatically. Insulin resistance, defined by HOMA-IR >3.5 and controlled for BMI, had little effect on the plasma lipidome. Importantly, we observed that in blood plasma of hypertensive individuals the overall content of ether lipids decreased. Ether phosphatidylcholines and ether phosphatidylethanolamines, that comprise arachidonic (20:4) and docosapentaenoic (22:5) fatty acid moieties, were specifically diminished. The content of free cholesterol also decreased, although conventional clinical lipid homeostasis indices remained unaffected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Top-down shotgun lipidomics demonstrated that hypertension is accompanied by specific reduction of the content of ether lipids and free cholesterol that occurred independently of lipidomic alterations induced by obesity and insulin resistance. These results may form the basis for novel preventive and dietary strategies alleviating the severity of hypertension.

Natalie Wielsch
Optimized GeLC-MS/MS for bottom-up proteomics
Ph.D. Thesis,Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany (2009)

Christer S. Ejsing, Julio Sampaio, Vineeth Surendranath, Eva Duchoslav, Kim Ekroos, Robin W. Klemm, Kai Simons, Andrej Shevchenko
Global analysis of the yeast lipidome by quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A., 106(7) 2136-2141 (2009)
Although the transcriptome, proteome, and interactome of several eukaryotic model organisms have been described in detail, lipidomes remain relatively uncharacterized. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an example, we demonstrate that automated shotgun lipidomics analysis enabled lipidome-wide absolute quantification of individual molecular lipid species by streamlined processing of a single sample of only 2 million yeast cells. By comparative lipidomics, we achieved the absolute quantification of 250 molecular lipid species covering 21 major lipid classes. This analysis provided approximately 95% coverage of the yeast lipidome achieved with 125-fold improvement in sensitivity compared with previous approaches. Comparative lipidomics demonstrated that growth temperature and defects in lipid biosynthesis induce ripple effects throughout the molecular composition of the yeast lipidome. This work serves as a resource for molecular characterization of eukaryotic lipidomes, and establishes shotgun lipidomics as a powerful platform for complementing biochemical studies and other systems-level approaches.

Elena Bonzón-Kulichenko, Dominik Schwudke, Nilda Gallardo, Eduardo Moltó, Teresa Fernández-Agulló, Andrej Shevchenko, Antonio Andrés
Central leptin regulates total ceramide content and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1C proteolytic maturation in rat white adipose tissue.
Endocrinology, 150(1) 169-178 (2009)
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with insulin and leptin resistance, and increased ceramide contents in target tissues. Because the adipose tissue has become a central focus in these diseases, and leptin-induced increases in insulin sensitivity may be related to effects of leptin on lipid metabolism, we investigated herein whether central leptin was able to regulate total ceramide levels and the expression of enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism in rat white adipose tissue (WAT). After 7 d central leptin treatment, the total content of ceramides was analyzed by quantitative shotgun lipidomics mass spectrometry. The effects of leptin on the expression of several enzymes of the sphingolipid metabolism, sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, and insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG-1) in this tissue were studied. Total ceramide levels were also determined after surgical WAT denervation. Central leptin infusion significantly decreased both total ceramide content and the long-chain fatty acid ceramide species in WAT. Concomitant with these results, leptin decreased the mRNA levels of enzymes involved in de novo ceramide synthesis (SPT-1, LASS2, LASS4) and ceramide production from sphingomyelin (SMPD-1/2). The mRNA levels of enzymes of ceramide degradation (Asah1/2) and utilization (sphingomyelin synthase, ceramide kinase, glycosyl-ceramide synthase, GM3 synthase) were also down-regulated. Ceramide-lowering effects of central leptin were prevented by local autonomic nervous system denervation of WAT. Finally, central leptin treatment markedly increased INSIG-1 mRNA expression and impaired SREBP-1c activation in epididymal WAT. These observations indicate that in vivo central leptin, acting through the autonomic nervous system, regulates total ceramide levels and SREBP-1c proteolytic maturation in WAT, probably contributing to improve the overall insulin sensitivity.

Henrik Thomas, Andrej Shevchenko
Simplified validation of borderline hits of database searches.
Proteomics, 8(20) 4173-4177 (2008)
Along with unequivocal hits produced by matching multiple MS/MS spectra to database sequences, LC-MS/MS analysis often yields a large number of hits of borderline statistical confidence. To simplify their validation, we propose to use rapid de novo interpretation of all acquired MS/MS spectra and, with the help of a simple software tool, display the candidate sequences together with each database search hit. We demonstrate that comparing hit database sequences and independent de novo interpretations of the same MS/MS spectra assists in rapid examination of ambiguous matches.

Paulo C. Carvalho, Magno Junqueira, Richard H Valente, Gilberto B Domont
Caititu: a tool to graphically represent peptide sequence coverage and domain distribution.
J Proteomics, 71(4) 486-489 (2008)
Here we present Caititu, an easy-to-use proteomics software to graphically represent peptide sequence coverage and domain distribution for different correlated samples (e.g. originated from 2D gel spots) relatively to the full-sequence of the known protein they are related to. Although Caititu has a broad applicability, we exemplify its usefulness in Toxinology using snake venom as a model. For example, proteolytic processing may lead to inactivation or loss of domains. Therefore, our proposed graphic representation for peptides identified by two dimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometric identification of excised spots can aid in inferring what kind of processing happened to the toxins, if any. Caititu is freely available to download at: http://pcarvalho.com/things/caititu.

Magno Junqueira✳︎, Victor Spirin✳︎, Tiago S. Balbuena, Patrice Waridel, Vineeth Surendranath, Grigoriy Kryukov, Ivan Adzhubei, Henrik Thomas, Shamil Sunyaev, Andrej Shevchenko
Separating the wheat from the chaff: unbiased filtering of background tandem mass spectra improves protein identification.
J Proteome Res, 7(8) 3382-3395 (2008)
Only a small fraction of spectra acquired in LC-MS/MS runs matches peptides from target proteins upon database searches. The remaining, operationally termed background, spectra originate from a variety of poorly controlled sources and affect the throughput and confidence of database searches. Here, we report an algorithm and its software implementation that rapidly removes background spectra, regardless of their precise origin. The method estimates the dissimilarity distance between screened MS/MS spectra and unannotated spectra from a partially redundant background library compiled from several control and blank runs. Filtering MS/MS queries enhanced the protein identification capacity when searches lacked spectrum to sequence matching specificity. In sequence-similarity searches it reduced by, on average, 30-fold the number of orphan hits, which were not explicitly related to background protein contaminants and required manual validation. Removing high quality background MS/MS spectra, while preserving in the data set the genuine spectra from target proteins, decreased the false positive rate of stringent database searches and improved the identification of low-abundance proteins.

Magno Junqueira, Victor Spirin, Tiago S. Balbuena, Henrik Thomas, Ivan Adzhubei, Shamil Sunyaev, Andrej Shevchenko
Protein identification pipeline for the homology-driven proteomics.
J Proteomics, 71(3) 346-356 (2008)
Homology-driven proteomics is a major tool to characterize proteomes of organisms with unsequenced genomes. This paper addresses practical aspects of automated homology-driven protein identifications by LC-MS/MS on a hybrid LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. All essential software elements supporting the presented pipeline are either hosted at the publicly accessible web server, or are available for free download.

Eugeni V. Entchev, Dominik Schwudke, Vyacheslav Zagoriy, Vitali Matyash, Aliona Bogdanova, Bianca Habermann, Lin Zhu, Andrej Shevchenko, Teymuras V. Kurzchalia
LET-767 is required for the production of branched chain and long chain fatty acids in Caenorhabditis elegans.
J Biol Chem, 283(25) 17550-17560 (2008)
LET-767 from Caenorhabditis elegans belongs to a family of short chain dehydrogenases/reductases and is homologous to 17beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenases of type 3 and 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductases. Worms subjected to RNA interference (RNAi) of let-767 displayed multiple growth and developmental defects in the first generation and arrested in the second generation as L1 larvae. To determine the function of LET-767 in vivo, we exploited a biochemical complementation approach, in which let-767 (RNAi)-arrested larvae were rescued by feeding with compounds isolated from wild type worms. The arrest was only rescued by the addition of triacylglycerides extracted from worms but not from various natural sources, such as animal fats and plant oils. The mass spectrometric analyses showed alterations in the fatty acid content of triacylglycerides. Essential for the rescue were odd-numbered fatty acids with monomethyl branched chains. The rescue was improved when worms were additionally supplemented with long chain even-numbered fatty acids. Remarkably, let-767 completely rescued the yeast 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase mutant (ybr159Delta). Because worm ceramides exclusively contain a monomethyl branched chain sphingoid base, we also investigated ceramides in let-767 (RNAi). Indeed, the amount of ceramides was greatly reduced, and unusual sphingoid bases were observed. Taken together, we conclude that LET-767 is a major 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase in C. elegans required for the bulk production of monomethyl branched and long chain fatty acids, and the developmental arrest in let-767 (RNAi) worms is caused by the deficiency of the former.

Vitali Matyash, Gerhard Liebisch, Teymuras V. Kurzchalia, Andrej Shevchenko, Dominik Schwudke
Lipid extraction by methyl-tert-butyl ether for high-throughput lipidomics.
J Lipid Res, 49(5) 1137-1146 (2008)
Accurate profiling of lipidomes relies upon the quantitative and unbiased recovery of lipid species from analyzed cells, fluids, or tissues and is usually achieved by two-phase extraction with chloroform. We demonstrated that methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) extraction allows faster and cleaner lipid recovery and is well suited for automated shotgun profiling. Because of MTBE's low density, lipid-containing organic phase forms the upper layer during phase separation, which simplifies its collection and minimizes dripping losses. Nonextractable matrix forms a dense pellet at the bottom of the extraction tube and is easily removed by centrifugation. Rigorous testing demonstrated that the MTBE protocol delivers similar or better recoveries of species of most all major lipid classes compared with the "gold-standard" Folch or Bligh and Dyer recipes.

Lars Demmel✳︎, Mike Beck✳︎, Christian Klose, Anne-Lore Schlaitz, Yvonne Gloor, Peggy P. Hsu, Jan Havlis, Andrej Shevchenko, Eberhard Krause, Yannis Kalaidzidis, Christiane Walch-Solimena
Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the Golgi phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase Pik1 is regulated by 14-3-3 proteins and coordinates Golgi function with cell growth.
Mol Biol Cell, 19(3) 1046-1061 (2008)
The yeast phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase Pik1p is essential for proliferation, and it controls Golgi homeostasis and transport of newly synthesized proteins from this compartment. At the Golgi, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate recruits multiple cytosolic effectors involved in formation of post-Golgi transport vesicles. A second pool of catalytically active Pik1p localizes to the nucleus. The physiological significance and regulation of this dual localization of the lipid kinase remains unknown. Here, we show that Pik1p binds to the redundant 14-3-3 proteins Bmh1p and Bmh2p. We provide evidence that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Pik1p involves phosphorylation and that 14-3-3 proteins bind Pik1p in the cytoplasm. Nutrient deprivation results in relocation of Pik1p from the Golgi to the nucleus and increases the amount of Pik1p-14-3-3 complex, a process reversed upon restored nutrient supply. These data suggest a role of Pik1p nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in coordination of biosynthetic transport from the Golgi with nutrient signaling.

Anna Shevchenko, Assen Roguev, Daniel Schaft, Luke Buchanan, Bianca Habermann, Cagri Sakalar, Henrik Thomas, Nevan J Krogan, Andrej Shevchenko, A. Francis Stewart
Chromatin Central: towards the comparative proteome by accurate mapping of the yeast proteomic environment.
Genome Biol, 9(11) 167-167 (2008)
BACKGROUND: Understanding the design logic of living systems requires the understanding and comparison of proteomes. Proteomes define the commonalities between organisms more precisely than genomic sequences. Because uncertainties remain regarding the accuracy of proteomic data, several issues need to be resolved before comparative proteomics can be fruitful. RESULTS: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome presents the highest quality proteomic data available. To evaluate the accuracy of these data, we intensively mapped a proteomic environment, termed 'Chromatin Central', which encompasses eight protein complexes, including the major histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases, interconnected by twelve proteomic hyperlinks. Using sequential tagging and a new method to eliminate background, we confirmed existing data but also uncovered new subunits and three new complexes, including ASTRA, which we suggest is a widely conserved aspect of telomeric maintenance, and two new variations of Rpd3 histone deacetylase complexes. We also examined the same environment in fission yeast and found a very similar architecture based on a scaffold of orthologues comprising about two-thirds of all proteins involved, whereas the remaining one-third is less constrained. Notably, most of the divergent hyperlinks were found to be due to gene duplications, hence providing a mechanism for the fixation of gene duplications in evolution. CONCLUSIONS: We define several prerequisites for comparative proteomics and apply them to examine a proteomic environment in unprecedented detail. We suggest that high resolution mapping of proteomic environments will deliver the highest quality data for comparative proteomics.

Dominik Schwudke, Asgar Ergin, Kathrin Michael, Sven Volkmar, Bernd Appel, Dorothea Knabner, Antje Konietzny, Eckhard Strauch
Broad-host-range Yersinia phage PY100: genome sequence, proteome analysis of virions, and DNA packaging strategy.
J Bacteriol, 190(1) 332-342 (2008)
PY100 is a lytic bacteriophage with a broad host range within the genus Yersinia. The phage forms plaques on strains of the three human pathogenic species Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. pestis at 37 degrees C. PY100 was isolated from farm manure and intended to be used in phage therapy trials. PY100 has an icosahedral capsid containing double-stranded DNA and a contractile tail. The genome consists of 50,291 bp and is predicted to contain 93 open reading frames (ORFs). PY100 gene products were found to be homologous to the capsid proteins and proteins involved in DNA metabolism of the enterobacterial phage T1; PY100 tail proteins possess homologies to putative tail proteins of phage AaPhi23 of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. In a proteome analysis of virion particles, 15 proteins of the head and tail structures were identified by mass spectrometry. The putative gene product of ORF2 of PY100 shows significant homology to the gene 3 product (small terminase subunit) of Salmonella phage P22 that is involved in packaging of the concatemeric phage DNA. The packaging mechanism of PY100 was analyzed by hybridization and sequence analysis of DNA isolated from virion particles. Newly replicated PY100 DNA is cut initially at a pac recognition site, which is located in the coding region of ORF2.

Ching-Ju Tsai, Christer S. Ejsing, Andrej Shevchenko, Christine Ziegler
The role of lipids and salts in two-dimensional crystallization of the glycine-betaine transporter BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum.
J Struct Biol, 160(3) 275-286 (2007)
The osmoregulated and chill-sensitive glycine-betaine transporter (BetP) from Corynebacterium glutamicum was reconstituted into lipids to form two-dimensional (2D) crystals. The sensitivity of BetP partly bases on its interaction with lipids. Here we demonstrate that lipids and salts influence crystal morphology and crystallinity of a C-terminally truncated BetP. The salt type and concentration during crystallization determined whether crystals grew in the form of planar-tubes, sheets or vesicles, while the lipid type influenced crystal packing and order. Three different lipid preparations for 2D crystallization were compared. Only the use of lipids extracted from C. glutamicum cells led to the formation of large, well-ordered crystalline areas. To understand the lipid-derived influence on crystallinity, lipid extracts from different stages of the crystallization process were analyzed by quantitative multiple-precursor ion scanning mass spectroscopy (MS). Results show that BetP has a preference for fatty acid moieties 16:0-18:1, and that a phosphatidyl glycerol (PG) 16:0-18:1 rich preparation prevents formation of pseudo crystals.

Nuran Ozcan, Christer S. Ejsing, Andrej Shevchenko, Andrej Lipski, Susanne Morbach, Reinhard Krämer
Osmolality, temperature, and membrane lipid composition modulate the activity of betaine transporter BetP in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
J Bacteriol, 189(20) 7485-7496 (2007)
The gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum, a major amino acid-producing microorganism in biotechnology, is equipped with several osmoregulated uptake systems for compatible solutes, which is relevant for the physiological response to osmotic stress. The most significant carrier, BetP, is instantly activated in response to an increasing cytoplasmic K(+) concentration. Importantly, it is also activated by chill stress independent of osmotic stress. We show that the activation of BetP by both osmotic stress and chill stress is altered in C. glutamicum cells grown at and adapted to low temperatures. BetP from cold-adapted cells is less sensitive to osmotic stress. In order to become susceptible for chill activation, cold-adapted cells in addition needed a certain amount of osmotic stimulation, indicating that there is cross talk of these two types of stimuli at the level of BetP activity. We further correlated the change in BetP regulation properties in cells grown at different temperatures to changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane. For this purpose, the glycerophospholipidome of C. glutamicum grown at different temperatures was analyzed by mass spectrometry using quantitative multiple precursor ion scanning. The molecular composition of glycerophospholipids was strongly affected by the growth temperature. The modulating influence of membrane lipid composition on BetP function was further corroborated by studying the influence of artificial modulation of membrane dynamics by local anesthetics and the lack of a possible influence of internally accumulated betaine on BetP activity.

Adriana Katz, Patrice Waridel, Andrej Shevchenko, Uri Pick
Salt-induced changes in the plasma membrane proteome of the halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina as revealed by blue native gel electrophoresis and nano-LC-MS/MS analysis.
Mol Cell Proteomics, 6(9) 1459-1472 (2007)
The halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina is a recognized model photosynthetic organism for studying plant adaptation to high salinity. The adaptation mechanisms involve major changes in the proteome composition associated with energy metabolism and carbon and iron acquisition. To clarify the molecular basis for the remarkable resistance to high salt, we performed a comprehensive proteomics analysis of the plasma membrane. Plasma membrane proteins were recognized by tagging intact cells with a membrane-impermeable biotin derivative. Proteins were resolved by two-dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE and identified by nano-LC-MS/MS. Of 55 identified proteins, about 60% were integral membrane or membrane-associated proteins. We identified novel surface coat proteins, lipid-metabolizing enzymes, a new family of membrane proteins of unknown function, ion transporters, small GTP-binding proteins, and heat shock proteins. The abundance of 20 protein spots increased and that of two protein spots decreased under high salt. The major salt-regulated proteins were implicated in protein and membrane structure stabilization and within signal transduction pathways. The migration profiles of native protein complexes on blue native gels revealed oligomerization or co-migration of major surface-exposed proteins, which may indicate mechanisms of stabilization at high salinity.

Patrice Waridel, Ari Frank, Henrik Thomas, Vineeth Surendranath, Shamil Sunyaev, Pavel Pevzner, Andrej Shevchenko
Sequence similarity-driven proteomics in organisms with unknown genomes by LC-MS/MS and automated de novo sequencing.
Proteomics, 7(14) 2318-2329 (2007)
LC-MS/MS analysis on a linear ion trap LTQ mass spectrometer, combined with data processing, stringent, and sequence-similarity database searching tools, was employed in a layered manner to identify proteins in organisms with unsequenced genomes. Highly specific stringent searches (MASCOT) were applied as a first layer screen to identify either known (i.e. present in a database) proteins, or unknown proteins sharing identical peptides with related database sequences. Once the confidently matched spectra were removed, the remainder was filtered against a nonannotated library of background spectra that cleaned up the dataset from spectra of common protein and chemical contaminants. The rectified spectral dataset was further subjected to rapid batch de novo interpretation by PepNovo software, followed by the MS BLAST sequence-similarity search that used multiple redundant and partially accurate candidate peptide sequences. Importantly, a single dataset was acquired at the uncompromised sensitivity with no need of manual selection of MS/MS spectra for subsequent de novo interpretation. This approach enabled a completely automated identification of novel proteins that were, otherwise, missed by conventional database searches.

Dominik Schwudke, J Thomas Hannich, Vineeth Surendranath, Vinciane Grimard, Thomas Moehring, Lyle Burton, Teymuras V. Kurzchalia, Andrej Shevchenko
Top-down lipidomic screens by multivariate analysis of high-resolution survey mass spectra.
Anal Chem, 79(11) 4083-4093 (2007)
Direct profiling of total lipid extracts on a hybrid LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer by high-resolution survey spectra clusters species of 11 major lipid classes into 7 groups, which are distinguished by their sum compositions and could be identified by accurately determined masses. Rapid acquisition of survey spectra was employed as a "top-down" screening tool that, together with the computational method of principal component analysis, revealed pronounced perturbations in the abundance of lipid precursors within the entire series of experiments. Altered lipid precursors were subsequently identified either by accurately determined masses or by in-depth MS/MS characterization that was performed on the same instrument. Hence, the sensitivity, throughput and robustness of lipidomics screens were improved without compromising the accuracy and specificity of molecular species identification. The top-down lipidomics strategy lends itself for high-throughput screens complementing ongoing functional genomics efforts.

Hae Yong Yoo, Akiko Kumagai, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, William G Dunphy
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent activation of ATR occurs through phosphorylation of TopBP1 by ATM.
J Biol Chem, 282(24) 17501-17506 (2007)
ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) is necessary for activation of Chk1 by ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) in response to double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) but not to DNA replication stress. TopBP1 has been identified as a direct activator of ATR. We show that ATM regulates Xenopus TopBP1 by phosphorylating Ser-1131 and thereby strongly enhancing association of TopBP1 with ATR. Xenopus egg extracts containing a mutant of TopBP1 that cannot be phosphorylated on Ser-1131 are defective in the ATR-dependent phosphorylation of Chk1 in response to DSBs but not to DNA replication stress. Thus, TopBP1 is critical for the ATM-dependent activation of ATR following production of DSBs in the genome.

Eckhard Strauch, Dominik Schwudke, Michael Linscheid
Predatory mechanisms of Bdellovibrio and like organisms.
Future Microbiol, 2 63-73 (2007)
Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) are predatory, Gram-negative delta-proteobacteria with a complex developmental lifecycle. In the free-living attack phase they are highly motile and seek out prey bacteria that they invade. The ensuing intracellular growth and replication is characterized by the development of a long filament that septates into individual cells that differentiate further into the flagellated attack-phase bacterium. The prey bacterium is lysed and motile predators are released. BALOs have recently been considered to have potential as living antibiotics. The idea of using predatory bacteria as therapeutic agents to combat pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria is intriguing, as they can prey upon human pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella, Pseudomonas and Escherichia coli. However, our current knowledge of the amazing biology of these prokaryotes that cause the systematic destruction of Gram-negative bacteria is still rather limited. More has to be learned about their predatory lifestyle before their application as therapeutic agents will become feasible.

Sebastien Charneau✳︎, Magno Junqueira✳︎, Camila M. Costa, Daniele L. Pires, Ellen S. Fernandes, Ana C. Bussacos, Marcelo V. de Sousa, Carlos A. O. Ricart, Andrej Shevchenko, Antonio R. L. Teixeira
The saliva proteome of the blood-feeding insect Triatoma infestans is rich in platelet-aggregation inhibitors
Int J Mass Spectrom, 268(2 - 3 ) 265-276 (2007)
The saliva of the bloodsucking bug Triatoma infestans vector of Chagas disease contains an anti-hemostatic molecular cocktail that prevents coagulation, vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation in a vertebrate prey. In order to characterize T. infestans saliva proteome, we separated the secreted saliva by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). More than 200 salivary proteins were detected on the 2-DE map, mainly in the alkaline region. By nanoLC–MS/MS analysis using a LTQ–Orbitrap equipment followed by a combination of conventional and sequence-similarity searches, we identified 58 main protein spots. Most of such proteins possess potential blood-feeding associated functions, particularly anti-platelet aggregation proteins belonging to lipocalin and apyrase families. The saliva protein composition indicates a highly specific molecular mechanism of early response to platelet aggregation. This first proteome analysis of the T. infestans secreted saliva provides a basis for a better understanding of this fluid protein composition highly directed to counterpart hemostasis of the prey, thus promoting the bug’s blood-feeding.

Anne-Lore Schlaitz, Martin Srayko, Alexander Dammermann, Sophie Quintin, Natalie Wielsch, Ian MacLeod, Quentin de Robillard, Andrea Zinke, John R. Yates, Thomas Müller-Reichert, Andrej Shevchenko, Karen Oegema, Anthony A. Hyman
The C. elegans RSA complex localizes protein phosphatase 2A to centrosomes and regulates mitotic spindle assembly.
Cell, 128(1) 115-127 (2007)
Microtubule behavior changes during the cell cycle and during spindle assembly. However, it remains unclear how these changes are regulated and coordinated. We describe a complex that targets the Protein Phosphatase 2A holoenzyme (PP2A) to centrosomes in C. elegans embryos. This complex includes Regulator of Spindle Assembly 1 (RSA-1), a targeting subunit for PP2A, and RSA-2, a protein that binds and recruits RSA-1 to centrosomes. In contrast to the multiple functions of the PP2A catalytic subunit, RSA-1 and RSA-2 are specifically required for microtubule outgrowth from centrosomes and for spindle assembly. The centrosomally localized RSA-PP2A complex mediates these functions in part by regulating two critical mitotic effectors: the microtubule destabilizer KLP-7 and the C. elegans regulator of spindle assembly TPXL-1. By regulating a subset of PP2A functions at the centrosome, the RSA complex could therefore provide a means of coordinating microtubule outgrowth from centrosomes and kinetochore microtubule stability during mitotic spindle assembly.

Dominik Schwudke, Gerhard Liebisch, Ronny Herzog, Gerd Schmitz, Andrej Shevchenko
Shotgun lipidomics by tandem mass spectrometry under data-dependent acquisition control
In: Spezialized analytical methods and lipids in disease. (Eds.) H. Alex Brown Methods in enzymology ; 433.,Amsterdam, Netherlands,Elsevier (2007),175-191 Ch. 10
Data-dependent acquisition of full MS/MS spectra from all detectable (or, alternatively, preselected) lipid precursors produces a rich data set, whose subsequent interpretation by the dedicated software LipidInspector emulates the simultaneous acquisition of an unlimited number of precursor and neutral loss scans in a single analysis. Using logical operations, emulated scans can be combined into highly specific data interpretation routines (termed Boolean scans) enabling in-depth structural characterization of fragmented precursors. Alternatively, a small number of preselected precursors can be fragmented regardless of their relative intensities in survey spectra, hence emulating selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analysis that attains both high detection specificity and sensitivity. Although the data-dependent acquisition approach is, in principle, cross-platform, it benefits from the high mass resolution capacity of hybrid tandem mass spectrometers with time-of-flight and, especially, Fourier transform or Orbitrap analyzers.

Vincent Gache, Patrice Waridel, Sylvie Luche, Andrej Shevchenko, Andrei V. Popov
Purification and mass spectrometry identification of microtubule-binding proteins from Xenopus egg extracts
In: Microtubule Protocols. (Eds.) Jun Zhou Methods in molecular medicine.,Totowa, USA,Humana Press (2007),29-43 Ch. 3

Pierre-Marie Dehé, Bernhard Dichtl, Daniel Schaft, Assen Roguev, Mercè Pamblanco, Régine Lebrun, Alfonso Rodríguez-Gil, Msau Mkandawire, Katharina Landsberg, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, Lorena E Rosaleny, Vicente Tordera, Sebastián Chávez, A. Francis Stewart, Vincent Géli
Protein interactions within the Set1 complex and their roles in the regulation of histone 3 lysine 4 methylation.
J Biol Chem, 281(46) 35404-35412 (2006)
Set1 is the catalytic subunit and the central component of the evolutionarily conserved Set1 complex (Set1C) that methylates histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4). Here we have determined protein/protein interactions within the complex and related the substructure to function. The loss of individual Set1C subunits differentially affects Set1 stability, complex integrity, global H3K4 methylation, and distribution of H3K4 methylation along active genes. The complex requires Set1, Swd1, and Swd3 for integrity, and Set1 amount is greatly reduced in the absence of the Swd1-Swd3 heterodimer. Bre2 and Sdc1 also form a heteromeric subunit, which requires the SET domain for interaction with the complex, and Sdc1 strongly interacts with itself. Inactivation of either Bre2 or Sdc1 has very similar effects. Neither is required for complex integrity, and their removal results in an increase of H3K4 mono- and dimethylation and a severe decrease of trimethylation at the 5' end of active coding regions but a decrease of H3K4 dimethylation at the 3' end of coding regions. Cells lacking Spp1 have a reduced amount of Set1 and retain a fraction of trimethylated H3K4, whereas cells lacking Shg1 show slightly elevated levels of both di- and trimethylation. Set1C associates with both serine 5- and serine 2-phosphorylated forms of polymerase II, indicating that the association persists to the 3' end of transcribed genes. Taken together, our results suggest that Set1C subunits stimulate Set1 catalytic activity all along active genes.

Natalie Wielsch✳︎, Henrik Thomas✳︎, Vineeth Surendranath, Patrice Waridel, Ari Frank, Pavel Pevzner, Andrej Shevchenko
Rapid validation of protein identifications with the borderline statistical confidence via de novo sequencing and MS BLAST searches.
J Proteome Res, 5(9) 2448-2456 (2006)
Protein identifications with the borderline statistical confidence are typically produced by matching a few marginal quality MS/MS spectra to database peptide sequences and represent a significant bottleneck in the reliable and reproducible characterization of proteomes. Here, we present a method for rapid validation of borderline hits that circumvents the need in, often biased, manual inspection of raw MS/MS spectra. The approach takes advantage of the independent interpretation of corresponding MS/MS spectra by PepNovo de novo sequencing software followed by mass spectrometry-driven BLAST (MS BLAST) sequence-similarity database searches that utilize all partially inaccurate, degenerate and redundant candidate peptide sequences. In a case study involving the identification of more than 180 Caenorhabditis elegans proteins by nanoLC-MS/MS analysis on a linear ion trap LTQ mass spectrometer, the approach enabled rapid assignment (confirmation or rejection) of more than 70% of Mascot hits of borderline statistical confidence.

Christer S. Ejsing, Eva Duchoslav, Julio Sampaio, Kai Simons, Ron Bonner, Christoph Thiele, Kim Ekroos, Andrej Shevchenko
Automated identification and quantification of glycerophospholipid molecular species by multiple precursor ion scanning.
Anal Chem, 78(17) 6202-6214 (2006)
We report a method for the identification and quantification of glycerophospholipid molecular species that is based on the simultaneous automated acquisition and processing of 41 precursor ion spectra, specific for acyl anions of common fatty acids moieties and several lipid class-specific fragment ions. Absolute quantification of identified species was linear within a concentration range of 10 nM-100 microM and was achieved by spiking into total lipid extracts a set of synthetic lipid standards with diheptadecanoyl (17:0/17:0) fatty acid moieties, representing six common classes of glycerophospholipids. The automated analysis of total lipid extracts was powered by a robotic nanoflow ion source and produced currently the most detailed description of the glycerophospholipidome.

Marek Sebela, Tat'ána Stosová, Jan Havlis, Natalie Wielsch, Henrik Thomas, Zbynek Zdráhal, Andrej Shevchenko
Thermostable trypsin conjugates for high-throughput proteomics: synthesis and performance evaluation.
Proteomics, 6(10) 2959-2963 (2006)
Conjugating bovine trypsin with oligosaccharides maltotriose, raffinose and stachyose increased its thermostability and suppressed autolysis, without affecting its cleavage specificity. These conjugates accelerated the digestion of protein substrates both in solution and in gel, compared to commonly used unmodified and methylated trypsins.

Vinzenz Link, Lara Carvalho, Irinka Castanon, Petra Stockinger, Andrej Shevchenko, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
Identification of regulators of germ layer morphogenesis using proteomics in zebrafish.
J Cell Sci, 119(Pt 10) 2073-2083 (2006)
During vertebrate gastrulation, a well-orchestrated series of morphogenetic changes leads to the formation of the three germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. The analysis of gene expression patterns during gastrulation has been central to the identification of genes involved in germ layer formation. However, many proteins are regulated on a translational or post-translational level and are thus undetectable by gene expression analysis. Therefore, we developed a 2D-gel-based comparative proteomic approach to target proteins involved in germ layer morphogenesis during zebrafish gastrulation. Proteomes of ectodermal and mesendodermal progenitor cells were compared and 35 significantly regulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, including several proteins with predicted functions in cytoskeletal organization. A comparison of our proteomic results with data obtained in an accompanying microarray-based gene expression analysis revealed no significant overlap, confirming the complementary nature of proteomics and transcriptomics. The regulation of ezrin2, which was identified based on a reduction in spot intensity in mesendodermal cells, was independently validated. Furthermore, we show that ezrin2 is activated by phosphorylation in mesendodermal cells and is required for proper germ layer morphogenesis. We demonstrate the feasibility of proteomics in zebrafish, concluding that proteomics is a valuable tool for analysis of early development.

Christer S. Ejsing, Thomas Moehring, Ute Bahr, Eva Duchoslav, Michael Karas, Kai Simons, Andrej Shevchenko
Collision-induced dissociation pathways of yeast sphingolipids and their molecular profiling in total lipid extracts: a study by quadrupole TOF and linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometry.
J Mass Spectrom, 41(3) 372-389 (2006)
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthesizes three classes of sphingolipids: inositolphosphoceramides (IPCs), mannosyl-inositolphosphoceramides (MIPCs), and mannosyl-diinositolphosphoceramides (M(IP)2C). Tandem mass spectrometry of their molecular anions on a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) instrument produced fragments of inositol-containing head groups, which were specific for each lipid class. MS(n) analysis performed on a hybrid linear ion trap-orbitrap (LTQ Orbitrap) mass spectrometer with better than 3 ppm mass accuracy identified fragment ions specific for the amide-linked fatty acid and the long chain base moieties in individual molecular species. By selecting m/z of class-specific fragment ions for multiple precursor ion scanning, we profiled yeast sphingolipids in total lipid extracts on a QqTOF mass spectrometer. Thus, a combination of QqTOF and LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry lends itself to rapid, comprehensive and structure-specific profiling of the molecular composition of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids in important model organisms, such as fungi and plants.

Arun Pal, Fedor F. Severin, Barbara Lommer, Anna Shevchenko, Marino Zerial
Huntingtin-HAP40 complex is a novel Rab5 effector that regulates early endosome motility and is up-regulated in Huntington's disease.
J Cell Biol, 172(4) 605-618 (2006)
The molecular mechanisms underlying the targeting of Huntingtin (Htt) to endosomes and its multifaceted role in endocytosis are poorly understood. In this study, we have identified Htt-associated protein 40 (HAP40) as a novel effector of the small guanosine triphosphatase Rab5, a key regulator of endocytosis. HAP40 mediates the recruitment of Htt by Rab5 onto early endosomes. HAP40 overexpression caused a drastic reduction of early endosomal motility through their displacement from microtubules and preferential association with actin filaments. Remarkably, endogenous HAP40 was up-regulated in fibroblasts and brain tissue from human patients affected by Huntington's disease (HD) as well as in STHdhQ(111) striatal cells established from a HD mouse model. These cells consistently displayed altered endosome motility and endocytic activity, which was restored by the ablation of HAP40. In revealing an unexpected link between Rab5, HAP40, and Htt, we uncovered a new mechanism regulating cytoskeleton-dependent endosome dynamics and its dysfunction under pathological conditions.

Vinzenz Link, Andrej Shevchenko, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
Proteomics of early zebrafish embryos.
BMC Dev Biol, 6 1-1 (2006)
BACKGROUND: Zebrafish (D. rerio) has become a powerful and widely used model system for the analysis of vertebrate embryogenesis and organ development. While genetic methods are readily available in zebrafish, protocols for two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and proteomics have yet to be developed. RESULTS: As a prerequisite to carry out proteomic experiments with early zebrafish embryos, we developed a method to efficiently remove the yolk from large batches of embryos. This method enabled high resolution 2D gel electrophoresis and improved Western blotting considerably. Here, we provide detailed protocols for proteomics in zebrafish from sample preparation to mass spectrometry (MS), including a comparison of databases for MS identification of zebrafish proteins. CONCLUSION: The provided protocols for proteomic analysis of early embryos enable research to be taken in novel directions in embryogenesis.

Rafael A P Guércio, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, Jorge L López-Lozano, Jaime Paba, Marcelo V. de Sousa, Carlos A. O. Ricart
Ontogenetic variations in the venom proteome of the Amazonian snake Bothrops atrox.
Proteome Sci, 4 11-11 (2006)
BACKGROUND: Bothrops atrox is responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents in the Brazilian Amazon region. Previous studies have demonstrated that the biological and pharmacological activities of B. atrox venom alter with the age of the animal. Here, we present a comparative proteome analysis of B. atrox venom collected from specimens of three different stages of maturation: juveniles, sub-adults and adults. RESULTS: Optimized conditions for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of pooled venom samples were achieved using immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels of non-linear 3-10 pH range during the isoelectric focusing step and 10-20% gradient polyacrylamide gels in the second dimension. Software-assisted analysis of the 2-DE gels images demonstrated differences in the number and intensity of spots in juvenile, sub-adult and adult venoms. Although peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) failed to identify even a minor fraction of spots, it allowed us to group spots that displayed similar peptide maps. The spots were subjected to a combination of tandem mass spectrometry and Mascot and MS BLAST database searches that identified several classes of proteins, including metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, lectins, phospholipases A2, L-amino oxidases, nerve growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factors and cysteine-rich secretory proteins. CONCLUSION: The analysis of B. atrox samples from specimens of different ages by 2-DE and mass spectrometry suggested that venom proteome alters upon ontogenetic development. We identified stage specific and differentially expressed polypeptides that may be responsible for the activities of the venom in each developmental stage. The results provide insight into the molecular basis of the relation between symptomatology of snakebite accidents in humans and the venom composition. Our findings underscore the importance of the use of venoms from individual specimen at various stages of maturation for the production of antivenoms.

Dominik Schwudke, Jeffrey Oegema, Lyle Burton, Eugeni V. Entchev, J Thomas Hannich, Christer S. Ejsing, Teymuras V. Kurzchalia, Andrej Shevchenko
Lipid profiling by multiple precursor and neutral loss scanning driven by the data-dependent acquisition.
Anal Chem, 78(2) 585-595 (2006)
Data-dependent acquisition of MS/MS spectra from lipid precursors enables to emulate the simultaneous acquisition of an unlimited number of precursor and neutral loss scans in a single analysis. This approach takes full advantage of rich fragment patterns in tandem mass spectra of lipids and enables their profiling by complex (Boolean) scans, in which masses of several fragment ions are considered within a single logical framework. No separation of lipids is required, and the accuracy of identification and quantification is not compromised, compared to conventional precursor and neutral loss scanning.

Andrej Shevchenko, Henrik Tomas, Jan Havlis, Jesper V Olsen, Matthias Mann
In-gel digestion for mass spectrometric characterization of proteins and proteomes.
Nat Protoc, 1(6) 2856-2860 (2006)
In-gel digestion of proteins isolated by gel electrophoresis is a cornerstone of mass spectrometry (MS)-driven proteomics. The 10-year-old recipe by Shevchenko et al. has been optimized to increase the speed and sensitivity of analysis. The protocol is for the in-gel digestion of both silver and Coomassie-stained protein spots or bands and can be followed by MALDI-MS or LC-MS/MS analysis to identify proteins at sensitivities better than a few femtomoles of protein starting material.

Adam J. Liska, Andrej Shevchenko
Identification of proteins from organisms with unsequenced genomes by tandem mass spectrometry and sequence-similarity database searching tools
In: Cell biology : a laboratory handbook. (Eds.) Julio E. Celis Part 4.,Amsterdam, Netherlands,Elsevier (2006),399-407 Ch. 51

Joachim Füllekrug, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, Kai Simons
Identification of glycosylated marker proteins of epithelial polarity in MDCK cells by homology driven proteomics.
BMC Biochem, 7 8-8 (2006)
BACKGROUND: MDCK cells derived from canine kidney are an important experimental model system for investigating epithelial polarity in mammalian cells. Monoclonal antibodies against apical gp114 and basolateral p58 have served as important tools in these studies. However, the molecular identity of these membrane glycoproteins has not been known. RESULTS: We have identified the sialoglycoprotein gp114 as a dog homologue of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family. Gp114 was enriched from tissue culture cells by subcellular fractionation and immunoaffinity chromatography. The identification was based on tandem mass spectrometry and homology based proteomics. In addition, the p58 basolateral marker glycoprotein was found to be the beta subunit of (Na+)(K+)-ATPase. CONCLUSION: Gp114 has been characterized previously regarding glycosylation dependent trafficking and lipid raft association. The identification as a member of the canine CEACAM family will enable synergy between the fields of epithelial cell biology and other research areas. Our approach exemplifies how membrane proteins can be identified from species with unsequenced genomes by homology based proteomics. This approach is applicable to any model system.

Joon Lee, Daniel A Gold, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, William G Dunphy
Roles of replication fork-interacting and Chk1-activating domains from Claspin in a DNA replication checkpoint response.
Mol Biol Cell, 16(11) 5269-5282 (2005)
Claspin is essential for the ATR-dependent activation of Chk1 in Xenopus egg extracts containing incompletely replicated DNA. Claspin associates with replication forks upon origin unwinding. We show that Claspin contains a replication fork-interacting domain (RFID, residues 265-605) that associates with Cdc45, DNA polymerase epsilon, replication protein A, and two replication factor C complexes on chromatin. The RFID contains two basic patches (BP1 and BP2) at amino acids 265-331 and 470-600, respectively. Deletion of either BP1 or BP2 compromises optimal binding of Claspin to chromatin. Absence of BP1 has no effect on the ability of Claspin to mediate activation of Chk1. By contrast, removal of BP2 causes a large reduction in the Chk1-activating potency of Claspin. We also find that Claspin contains a small Chk1-activating domain (residues 776-905) that does not bind stably to chromatin, but it is fully effective at high concentrations for mediating activation of Chk1. These results indicate that stable retention of Claspin on chromatin is not necessary for activation of Chk1. Instead, our findings suggest that only transient interaction of Claspin with replication forks potentiates its Chk1-activating function. Another implication of this work is that stable binding of Claspin to chromatin may play a role in other functions besides the activation of Chk1.

Adam J. Liska, Shamil Sunyaev, Ignat N Shilov, Dan A Schaeffer, Andrej Shevchenko
Error-tolerant EST database searches by tandem mass spectrometry and multiTag software.
Proteomics, 5(16) 4118-4122 (2005)
The MultiTag method (Sunyaev et al., Anal. Chem. 2003 15, 1307-1315) employs multiple error-tolerant searches with peptide sequence tags (Mann and Wilm, Anal. Chem. 1994, 66, 4390-4399) for the identification of proteins from organisms with unsequenced genomes. Here we demonstrate that the error-tolerant capabilities of MultiTag increased the number of peptide alignments and improved the confidence of identifications in an EST database. The MultiTag outperformed conventional database searching software that only utilizes stringent matching of tandem mass spectra to nucleotide sequences of ESTs.

Yanmei Liu, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, Arnold J Berk
Adenovirus exploits the cellular aggresome response to accelerate inactivation of the MRN complex.
J Virol, 79(22) 14004-14016 (2005)
Results reported here indicate that adenovirus 5 exploits the cellular aggresome response to accelerate inactivation of MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complexes that otherwise inhibit viral DNA replication and packaging. Aggresomes are cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, observed in many degenerative diseases, that are formed from aggregated proteins by dynein-dependent retrograde transport on microtubules to the microtubule organizing center. Viral E1B-55K protein forms aggresomes that sequester p53 and MRN in transformed cells and in cells transfected with an E1B-55K expression vector. During adenovirus infection, the viral protein E4orf3 associates with MRN in promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies before MRN is bound by E1B-55K. Either E4orf3 or E4orf6 is required in addition to E1B-55K for E1B-55K aggresome formation and MRE11 export to aggresomes in adenovirus-infected cells. Aggresome formation contributes to the protection of viral DNA from MRN activity by sequestering MRN in the cytoplasm and greatly accelerating its degradation by proteosomes following its ubiquitination by the E1B-55K/E4orf6/elongin BC/Cullin5/Rbx1 ubiquitin ligase. Our results show that aggresomes significantly accelerate protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteosome system. The observation that a normal cellular protein is inactivated when sequestered into an aggresome through association with an aggresome-inducing protein has implications for the potential cytotoxicity of aggresome-like inclusion bodies in degenerative diseases.

Marina N Nedelcheva, Assen Roguev, Luben B Dolapchiev, Andrej Shevchenko, Hristo B Taskov, Anna Shevchenko, A. Francis Stewart, Stoyno Stoynov
Uncoupling of unwinding from DNA synthesis implies regulation of MCM helicase by Tof1/Mrc1/Csm3 checkpoint complex.
J Mol Biol, 347(3) 509-521 (2005)
The replicative DNA helicases can unwind DNA in the absence of polymerase activity in vitro. In contrast, replicative unwinding is coupled with DNA synthesis in vivo. The temperature-sensitive yeast polymerase alpha/primase mutants cdc17-1, pri2-1 and pri1-m4, which fail to execute the early step of DNA replication, have been used to investigate the interaction between replicative unwinding and DNA synthesis in vivo. We report that some of the plasmid molecules in these mutant strains became extensively negatively supercoiled when DNA synthesis is prevented. In contrast, additional negative supercoiling was not detected during formation of DNA initiation complex or hydroxyurea replication fork arrest. Together, these results indicate that the extensive negative supercoiling of DNA is a result of replicative unwinding, which is not followed by DNA synthesis. The limited number of unwound plasmid molecules and synthetic lethality of polymerase alpha or primase with checkpoint mutants suggest a checkpoint regulation of the replicative unwinding. In concordance with this suggestion, we found that the Tof1/Csm3/Mrc1 checkpoint complex interacts directly with the MCM helicase during both replication fork progression and when the replication fork is stalled.

Tobias Oelschlaegel✳︎, Martin Schwickart✳︎, Joao Matos, Aliona Bogdanova, Alain Camasses, Jan Havlis, Andrej Shevchenko, Wolfgang Zachariae
The yeast APC/C subunit Mnd2 prevents premature sister chromatid separation triggered by the meiosis-specific APC/C-Ama1.
Cell, 120(6) 773-788 (2005)
Cohesion established between sister chromatids during pre-meiotic DNA replication mediates two rounds of chromosome segregation. The first division is preceded by an extended prophase wherein homologous chromosomes undergo recombination. The persistence of cohesion during prophase is essential for recombination and both meiotic divisions. Here we show that Mnd2, a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) from budding yeast, is essential to prevent premature destruction of cohesion in meiosis. During S- and prophase, Mnd2 prevents activation of the APC/C by a meiosis-specific activator called Ama1. In cells lacking Mnd2 the APC/C-Ama1 enzyme triggers degradation of Pds1, which causes premature sister chromatid separation due to unrestrained separase activity. In vitro, Mnd2 inhibits ubiquitination of Pds1 by APC/C-Ama1 but not by other APC/C holo-enzymes. We conclude that chromosome segregation in meiosis depends on the selective inhibition of a meiosis-specific form of the APC/C.

Marek Sebela, David Kopecný, Zbynek Lamplot, Jan Havlis, Henrik Thomas, Andrej Shevchenko
Thermostable beta-cyclodextrin conjugates of two similar plant amine oxidases and their properties.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 41(Pt 1) 77-84 (2005)
Syntheses of conjugates of garden pea (Pisum sativum) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) amine oxidases (PSAO and GPAO respectively) with BCD (beta-cyclodextrin), performed to improve the thermostability of the enzymes, are described in the present study. Periodate-oxidized BCD reacted with the enzyme proteins via free primary amino groups in a buffered solution containing cyanoborohydride as a reductant. Although the specific activities of PSAO and GPAO partially decreased after modification, Km values determined for the best diamine substrates remained almost unchanged. Both the BCD conjugates could be incubated at 65 degrees C for 30 min without considerable inactivation, and the residual activity remained detectable even after incubation at 75 degrees C. The conjugates contained approx. 30% of neutral sugars. Molecular masses of BCD-PSAO and BCD-GPAO (180 kDa), as estimated by gel-permeation chromatography, were higher compared with the value of 145 kDa for the native enzymes. This was in good correlation with the number of modified lysine residues determined by a spectrophotometric method. Peptide mass fingerprints of tryptic digests of BCD-PSAO and BCD-GPAO were less specific than those of the native enzymes when compared with the database sequence of PSAO. As a consequence of the modification, many unidentified peaks were observed in the digests of the studied conjugates that were not seen in the digests of native PSAO and GPAO. Only some of these peaks overlapped between BCD-PSAO and BCD-GPAO. The BCD conjugates described in the present study represent suitable candidates for biotechnological applications, e.g. in analyses using biosensors, which might benefit from increased storage stability and amine oxidation at high temperatures.

Anna Shevchenko✳︎, Mirta M. L. de Sousa✳︎, Patrice Waridel, Silvia Tolfo Bittencourt, Marcelo V. de Sousa, Andrej Shevchenko
Sequence similarity-based proteomics in insects: characterization of the larvae venom of the Brazilian moth Cerodirphia speciosa.
J Proteome Res, 4(3) 862-869 (2005)
Using a combination of tandem mass spectrometric sequencing and sequence similarity searches, we characterized the larvae venom of the moth Cerodirphia speciosa, which belongs to the Saturniidae family of the Lepidoptera order. Despite the paucity of available database sequence resources, the approach enabled us to identify 48 out of 58 attempted spots on its two-dimensional gel electrophoresis map, which represented 37 unique proteins, whereas it was only possible to identify 13 proteins by conventional non-error tolerant database searching methods. The majority of cross-species hits were made to proteins from the phylogenetically related Lepidoptera organism, the silk worm Bombyx mori. The protein composition of the venom suggested that envenoming by C. speciosa toxins might proceed through the contact with its hemolymph, similarly to another toxic Lepidoptera organism, Lonomia obliqua.

Lars Kuerschner, Christer S. Ejsing, Kim Ekroos, Andrej Shevchenko, Kurt I. Anderson, Christoph Thiele
Polyene-lipids: a new tool to image lipids.
Nat Methods, 2(1) 39-45 (2005)
Microscopy of lipids in living cells is currently hampered by a lack of adequate fluorescent tags. The most frequently used tags, NBD and BODIPY, strongly influence the properties of lipids, yielding analogs with quite different characteristics. Here, we introduce polyene-lipids containing five conjugated double bonds as a new type of lipid tag. Polyene-lipids exhibit a unique structural similarity to natural lipids, which results in minimal effects on the lipid properties. Analyzing membrane phase partitioning, an important biophysical and biological property of lipids, we demonstrated the superiority of polyene-lipids to both NBD- and BODIPY-tagged lipids. Cells readily take up various polyene-lipid precursors and generate the expected end products with no apparent disturbance by the tag. Applying two-photon excitation microscopy, we imaged the distribution of polyene-lipids in living mammalian cells. For the first time, ether lipids, important for the function of the brain, were successfully visualized.

Doris Meder, Anna Shevchenko, Kai Simons, Joachim Füllekrug
Gp135/podocalyxin and NHERF-2 participate in the formation of a preapical domain during polarization of MDCK cells.
J Cell Biol, 168(2) 303-313 (2005)
Epithelial polarization involves the segregation of apical and basolateral membrane domains, which are stabilized and maintained by tight junctions and membrane traffic. We report that unlike most apical and basolateral proteins in MDCK cells, which separate only after junctions have formed, the apical marker gp135 signifies an early level of polarized membrane organization established already in single cells. We identified gp135 as the dog orthologue of podocalyxin. With a series of domain mutants we show that the COOH-terminal PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ)-binding motif is targeting podocalyxin to the free surface of single cells as well as to a subdomain of the terminally polarized apical membrane. This special localization of podocalyxin is shared by the cytoplasmic PDZ-protein Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF)-2. Depleting podocalyxin by RNA interference caused defects in epithelial polarization. Together, our data suggest that podocalyxin and NHERF-2 function in epithelial polarization by contributing to an early apical scaffold based on PDZ domain-mediated interactions.

Hae Yong Yoo, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, William G Dunphy
Mcm2 is a direct substrate of ATM and ATR during DNA damage and DNA replication checkpoint responses.
J Biol Chem, 279(51) 53353-53364 (2004)
In vertebrates, ATM and ATR are critical regulators of checkpoint responses to damaged and incompletely replicated DNA. These checkpoint responses involve the activation of signaling pathways that inhibit the replication of chromosomes with DNA lesions. In this study, we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding a full-length version of Xenopus ATM. Using antibodies against the regulatory domain of ATM, we have identified the essential replication protein Mcm2 as an ATM-binding protein in Xenopus egg extracts. Xenopus Mcm2 underwent phosphorylation at Ser(92) in response to the presence of double-stranded DNA breaks or DNA replication blocks in egg extracts. This phosphorylation involved both ATM and ATR, but the relative contribution of each kinase depended upon the checkpoint-inducing DNA signal. Furthermore, both ATM and ATR phosphorylated Mcm2 directly at Ser(92) in cell-free kinase assays. Immunodepletion of both ATM and ATR abrogated the checkpoint response that blocks chromosomal DNA replication in egg extracts containing double-stranded DNA breaks. These experiments indicate that ATM and ATR phosphorylate the functionally critical replication protein Mcm2 during both DNA damage and replication checkpoint responses in Xenopus egg extracts.

Adam J. Liska✳︎, Andrei V. Popov✳︎, Shamil Sunyaev, Peg Coughlin, Bianca Habermann, Anna Shevchenko, Peer Bork, Eric Karsenti, Andrej Shevchenko
Homology-based functional proteomics by mass spectrometry: application to the Xenopus microtubule-associated proteome.
Proteomics, 4(9) 2707-2721 (2004)
The application of functional proteomics to important model organisms with unsequenced genomes is restricted because of the limited ability to identify proteins by conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods. Here we applied MS and sequence-similarity database searching strategies to characterize the Xenopus laevis microtubule-associated proteome. We identified over 40 unique, and many novel, microtubule-bound proteins, as well as two macromolecular protein complexes involved in protein translation. This finding was corroborated by electron microscopy showing the presence of ribosomes on spindles assembled from frog egg extracts. Taken together, these results suggest that protein translation occurs on the spindle during meiosis in the Xenopus oocyte. These findings were made possible due to the application of sequence-similarity methods, which extended mass spectrometric protein identification capabilities by 2-fold compared to conventional methods.

Adam J. Liska, Andrej Shevchenko, Uri Pick, Adriana Katz
Enhanced photosynthesis and redox energy production contribute to salinity tolerance in Dunaliella as revealed by homology-based proteomics.
Plant Physiol, 136(1) 2806-2817 (2004)
Salinity is a major limiting factor for the proliferation of plants and inhibits central metabolic activities such as photosynthesis. The halotolerant green alga Dunaliella can adapt to hypersaline environments and is considered a model photosynthetic organism for salinity tolerance. To clarify the molecular basis for salinity tolerance, a proteomic approach has been applied for identification of salt-induced proteins in Dunaliella. Seventy-six salt-induced proteins were selected from two-dimensional gel separations of different subcellular fractions and analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). Application of nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry, combined with sequence-similarity database-searching algorithms, MS BLAST and MultiTag, enabled identification of 80% of the salt-induced proteins. Salinity stress up-regulated key enzymes in the Calvin cycle, starch mobilization, and redox energy production; regulatory factors in protein biosynthesis and degradation; and a homolog of a bacterial Na(+)-redox transporters. The results indicate that Dunaliella responds to high salinity by enhancement of photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation and by diversion of carbon and energy resources for synthesis of glycerol, the osmotic element in Dunaliella. The ability of Dunaliella to enhance photosynthetic activity at high salinity is remarkable because, in most plants and cyanobacteria, salt stress inhibits photosynthesis. The results demonstrated the power of MS BLAST searches for the identification of proteins in organisms whose genomes are not known and paved the way for dissecting molecular mechanisms of salinity tolerance in algae and higher plants.

Adam J. Liska
The morality of problem selection in proteomics.
Proteomics, 4(7) 1929-1931 (2004)
The emerging power of new technologies in proteomics and the biological sciences to alter the human condition demands that scientists hold a new perspective on the social responsibilities of their research. Ethical theory can help scientists recognize not only those research projects that are harmful, but also those research paths that can create the greatest improvements in human health on a global scale. Whereas individual choices are important for the direction of scientific research, these choices may have limited social effects if they are not coordinated with larger institutional and inter-institutional structures. The perspective presented here calls for the Human Proteome Organization to recognize the ten most ethically significant proteomes to be characterized, with the hopes of rallying support and directing the research efforts of scientists in the proteomics community toward these goals.

Jeanette L Ducut Sigala, Virginie Bottero, David B Young, Andrej Shevchenko, Frank Mercurio, Inder M Verma
Activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB requires ELKS, an IkappaB kinase regulatory subunit.
Science, 304(5679) 1963-1967 (2004)
The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) family of transcription factors plays a seminal role in inflammation, apoptosis, development, and cancer. Modulation of NF-kappaB-mediated gene expression in response to diverse signals is coordinated by the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex. We identified ELKS, an essential regulatory subunit of the IKK complex. Silencing ELKS expression by RNA interference blocked induced expression of NF-kappaB target genes, including the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaBalpha and proinflammatory genes such as cyclo-oxygenase 2 and interleukin 8. These cells were also not protected from apoptosis in response to cytokines. ELKS likely functions by recruiting IkappaBalpha to the IKK complex and thus serves a regulatory function for IKK activation.

Jan Havlis, Andrej Shevchenko
Absolute quantification of proteins in solutions and in polyacrylamide gels by mass spectrometry.
Anal Chem, 76(11) 3029-3036 (2004)
A combination of nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry and (18)O-labeled peptide internal standards was applied for the absolute quantification of proteins from their in-solution and in-gel tryptic digests. Although absolute quantification from in-solution digests was accurate, we observed that in-gel digestion compromised the quantification accuracy by affecting the recovery of individual peptides and, therefore, the provided estimates might be strongly influenced by the selection of reference peptides. Under optimized experimental conditions, it was possible to provide a semiquantitative estimate of the absolute amount of gel separated proteins within better than 50% error margin.

Tamaki Yano, Sonia López de Quinto, Yasuhisa Matsui, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, Anne Ephrussi
Hrp48, a Drosophila hnRNPA/B homolog, binds and regulates translation of oskar mRNA.
Dev Cell, 6(5) 637-648 (2004)
Establishment of the Drosophila embryonic axes provides a striking example of RNA localization as an efficient mechanism for protein targeting within a cell. oskar mRNA encodes the posterior determinant and is essential for germline and abdominal development in the embryo. Tight restriction of Oskar activity to the posterior is achieved by mRNA localization-dependent translational control, whereby unlocalized mRNA is translationally repressed and repression is overcome upon mRNA localization. Here we identify the previously reported oskar RNA binding protein p50 as Hrp48, an abundant Drosophila hnRNP. Analysis of three hrp48 mutant alleles reveals that Hrp48 levels are crucial for polarization of the oocyte during mid-oogenesis. Our data also show that Hrp48, which binds to the 5' and 3' regions of oskar mRNA, plays an important role in restricting Oskar activity to the posterior of the oocyte, by repressing oskar mRNA translation during transport.

Hae Yong Yoo, Akiko Kumagai, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, William G Dunphy
Adaptation of a DNA replication checkpoint response depends upon inactivation of Claspin by the Polo-like kinase.
Cell, 117(5) 575-588 (2004)
The checkpoint mediator protein Claspin is essential for the ATR-dependent activation of Chk1 in Xenopus egg extracts containing aphidicolin-induced DNA replication blocks. We show that, during this checkpoint response, Claspin becomes phosphorylated on threonine 906 (T906), which creates a docking site for Plx1, the Xenopus Polo-like kinase. This interaction promotes the phosphorylation of Claspin on a nearby serine (S934) by Plx1. After a prolonged interphase arrest, aphidicolin-treated egg extracts typically undergo adaptation and enter into mitosis despite the presence of incompletely replicated DNA. In this process, Claspin dissociates from chromatin, and Chk1 undergoes inactivation. By contrast, aphidicolin-treated extracts containing mutants of Claspin with alanine substitutions at positions 906 or 934 (T906A or S934A) are unable to undergo adaptation. Under such adaptation-defective conditions, Claspin accumulates on chromatin at high levels, and Chk1 does not decrease in activity. These results indicate that the Plx1-dependent inactivation of Claspin results in termination of a DNA replication checkpoint response.

Martin Schwickart, Jan Havlis, Bianca Habermann, Aliona Bogdanova, Alain Camasses, Tobias Oelschlaegel, Andrej Shevchenko, Wolfgang Zachariae
Swm1/Apc13 is an evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex stabilizing the association of Cdc16 and Cdc27.
Mol Cell Biol, 24(8) 3562-3576 (2004)
The anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is a large ubiquitin-protein ligase which controls progression through anaphase by triggering the degradation of cell cycle regulators such as securin and B-type cyclins. The APC/C is an unusually complex ligase containing at least 10 different, evolutionarily conserved components. In contrast to APC/C's role in cell cycle regulation little is known about the functions of individual subunits and how they might interact with each other. Here, we have analyzed Swm1/Apc13, a small subunit recently identified in the budding yeast complex. Database searches revealed proteins related to Swm1/Apc13 in various organisms including humans. Both the human and the fission yeast homologues are associated with APC/C subunits, and they complement the phenotype of an SWM1 deletion mutant of budding yeast. Swm1/Apc13 promotes the stable association with the APC/C of the essential subunits Cdc16 and Cdc27. Accordingly, Swm1/Apc13 is required for ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro and for the timely execution of APC/C-dependent cell cycle events in vivo.

Bianca Habermann, Jeffrey Oegema, Shamil Sunyaev, Andrej Shevchenko
The power and the limitations of cross-species protein identification by mass spectrometry-driven sequence similarity searches.
Mol Cell Proteomics, 3(3) 238-249 (2004)
Mass spectrometry-driven BLAST (MS BLAST) is a database search protocol for identifying unknown proteins by sequence similarity to homologous proteins available in a database. MS BLAST utilizes redundant, degenerate, and partially inaccurate peptide sequence data obtained by de novo interpretation of tandem mass spectra and has become a powerful tool in functional proteomic research. Using computational modeling, we evaluated the potential of MS BLAST for proteome-wide identification of unknown proteins. We determined how the success rate of protein identification depends on the full-length sequence identity between the queried protein and its closest homologue in a database. We also estimated phylogenetic distances between organisms under study and related reference organisms with completely sequenced genomes that allow substantial coverage of unknown proteomes.

Marta Miaczynska, Savvas Christoforidis, Angelika Giner, Anna Shevchenko, Sandrine Uttenweiler-Joseph, Bianca Habermann, Matthias Wilm, Robert G. Parton, Marino Zerial
APPL proteins link Rab5 to nuclear signal transduction via an endosomal compartment.
Cell, 116(3) 445-456 (2004)
Signals generated in response to extracellular stimuli at the plasma membrane are transmitted through cytoplasmic transduction cascades to the nucleus. We report the identification of a pathway directly linking the small GTPase Rab5, a key regulator of endocytosis, to signal transduction and mitogenesis. This pathway operates via APPL1 and APPL2, two Rab5 effectors, which reside on a subpopulation of endosomes. In response to extracellular stimuli such as EGF and oxidative stress, APPL1 translocates from the membranes to the nucleus where it interacts with the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase multiprotein complex NuRD/MeCP1, an established regulator of chromatin structure and gene expression. Both APPL1 and APPL2 are essential for cell proliferation and their function requires Rab5 binding. Our findings identify an endosomal compartment bearing Rab5 and APPL proteins as an intermediate in signaling between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.

Assen Roguev, Anna Shevchenko, Daniel Schaft, Henrik Thomas, A. Francis Stewart, Andrej Shevchenko
A comparative analysis of an orthologous proteomic environment in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
Mol Cell Proteomics, 3(2) 125-132 (2004)
The sequential application of protein tagging, affinity purification, and mass spectrometry enables highly accurate charting of proteomic environments by the characterization of stable protein assemblies and the identification of subunits that are shared between two or more protein complexes, termed here "proteomic hyperlinks." We have charted the proteomic environments surrounding the histone methyltransferase, Set1, in both yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although the composition of these nonessential Set1 complexes is remarkably conserved, they differ with respect to their hyperlinks to their proteomic environments. We speculate that conservation of the core components of protein assemblies and variability of hyperlinks represents a general principle in the molecular organization of eukaryotic proteomes.

Henrik Thomas, Jan Havlis, Jan Peychl, Andrej Shevchenko
Dried-droplet probe preparation on AnchorChip targets for navigating the acquisition of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight spectra by fluorescence of matrix/analyte crystals.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, 18(9) 923-930 (2004)
We have developed a dried-droplet probe preparation method for peptide mass fingerprinting by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS), which uses AnchorChip targets and alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) as a matrix. Upon drying of a matrix and analyte mixture on the AnchorChip, salts and low molecular weight contaminants were pooled at the hydrophilic metal anchor, whereas 10-50 microm matrix/peptide crystals firmly adhered at the surface of a hydrophobic polymer and the entire target could be subsequently washed by submerging it in 5% formic acid for 2-3 min. Epifluorescence microscopy suggested that peptides were completely co-localized with CHCA crystals at the AnchorChip surface. Fluorescent images of the probes were of good contrast and were background-free, compared with images taken by a video camera built into the ion source. CHCA/peptide crystals were easy to recognize at the surface and peptide mass maps were acquired from them without further adjustment of the position of the laser beam. These crystals were remarkably stable towards the laser depletion and almost no matrix-related ions were typically observed in the low m/z region of peptide mass maps. The sensitivity of the peptide mass mapping was at the low-femtomole level.

Kim Ekroos✳︎, Christer S. Ejsing✳︎, Ute Bahr, Michael Karas, Kai Simons, Andrej Shevchenko
Charting molecular composition of phosphatidylcholines by fatty acid scanning and ion trap MS3 fragmentation.
J Lipid Res, 44(11) 2181-2192 (2003)
The molecular composition of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) in total lipid extracts was characterized by a combination of multiple precursor ion scanning on a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and MS3 fragmentation on an ion trap mass spectrometer. Precursor ion spectra for 50 acyl anion fragments of fatty acids (fatty acid scanning) acquired in parallel increased the specificity and the dynamic range of the detection of PCs and identified the fatty acid moieties in individual PC species. Subsequent analysis of detected PC peaks by MS3 fragmentation on an ion trap mass spectrometer quantified the relative amount of their positional isomers, thus providing the most detailed and comprehensive characterization of the molecular composition of the pool of PCs at the low-picomole level. The method is vastly simplified, compared with conventional approaches, and does not require preliminary separation of lipid classes or of individual molecular species, enzymatic digestion, or chemical derivatization. The approach was validated by the comparative analysis of the molecular composition of PCs from human red blood cells. In the total lipid extract of Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells, we detected 46 PC species with unique fatty acid composition and demonstrated that the presence of positional isomers almost doubled the total number of individual molecular species.

Maria Dolores Ledesma, Jorge Santos Da Silva, Anna Schevchenko, Matthias Wilm, Carlos G Dotti
Proteomic characterisation of neuronal sphingolipid-cholesterol microdomains: role in plasminogen activation.
Brain Res, 987(1) 107-116 (2003)
Sorting of certain membrane proteins requires a mechanism involving rafts, protein-lipid complexes enriched in glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. These microdomains remain at the plasma membrane of different cell types and play a role in signal transduction. Although recent reports have begun to describe molecules associated with rafts, their protein composition remains largely unknown, especially in neuronal cells. To address this question, we have purified detergent-insoluble raft fractions (DRMs) from primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Bidimensional gel analysis and pharmacological raft lipid manipulation allowed the identification of neuronal raft proteins and their characterisation by MALDI-TOF analysis. Enolases were found among the proteins identified and functional studies demonstrate their participation in plasminogen binding. We also show the specific enrichment in rafts of several other plasminogen binding molecules and the exclusive activation of plasminogen to the protease plasmin in these microdomains. These observations suggest that neuronal rafts may play, in addition to intracellular signaling, a role in extracellular/membrane protein proteolysis.

Arshad Desai, Sonja Rybina, Thomas Müller-Reichert, Andrej Shevchenko, Anna Shevchenko, Anthony A. Hyman, Karen Oegema
KNL-1 directs assembly of the microtubule-binding interface of the kinetochore in C. elegans.
Genes Dev, 17(19) 2421-2435 (2003)
Segregation of the replicated genome during cell division requires kinetochores, mechanochemical organelles that assemble on mitotic chromosomes to connect them to spindle microtubules. CENP-A, a histone H3 variant, and CENP-C, a conserved structural protein, form the DNA-proximal foundation for kinetochore assembly. Using RNA interference-based genomics in Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified KNL-1, a novel kinetochore protein whose depletion, like that of CeCENP-A or CeCENP-C, leads to a "kinetochore-null" phenotype. KNL-1 is downstream of CeCENP-A and CeCENP-C in a linear assembly hierarchy. In embryonic extracts, KNL-1 exhibits substoichiometric interactions with CeCENP-C and forms a near-stoichiometric complex with CeNDC-80 and HIM-10, the C. elegans homologs of Ndc80p/HEC1p and Nuf2p-two widely conserved outer kinetochore components. However, CeNDC-80 and HIM-10 are not functionally equivalent to KNL-1 because their inhibition, although preventing formation of a mechanically stable kinetochore-microtubule interface and causing chromosome missegregation, does not result in a kinetochore-null phenotype. The greater functional importance of KNL-1 may be due to its requirement for targeting multiple components of the outer kinetochore, including CeNDC-80 and HIM-10. Thus, KNL-1 plays a central role in translating the initiation of kinetochore assembly by CeCENP-A and CeCENP-C into the formation of a functional microtubule-binding interface.

Alain Camasses, Aliona Bogdanova, Andrej Shevchenko, Wolfgang Zachariae
The CCT chaperonin promotes activation of the anaphase-promoting complex through the generation of functional Cdc20.
Mol Cell, 12(1) 87-100 (2003)
The WD repeat protein Cdc20 is essential for progression through mitosis because it is required to activate ubiquitin ligation by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C). Here we show in yeast that Cdc20 binds to the CCT chaperonin, which is known as a folding machine for actin and tubulin. The CCT is required for Cdc20's ability to bind and activate the APC/C. In vivo, CCT is essential for Cdc20-dependent cell cycle events such as sister chromatid separation and exit from mitosis. The chaperonin is also required for the function of the Cdc20-related protein Cdh1, which activates the APC/C during G1. We propose that folding of the Cdc20 family of APC/C activators is an essential and evolutionary conserved function of the CCT chaperonin.

Daniel Schaft✳︎, Assen Roguev✳︎, Kimberly M. Kotovic, Anna Shevchenko, Mihail Sarov, Andrej Shevchenko, Karla M. Neugebauer, A. Francis Stewart
The histone 3 lysine 36 methyltransferase, SET2, is involved in transcriptional elongation.
Nucleic Acids Res, 31(10) 2475-2482 (2003)
Existing evidence indicates that SET2, the histone 3 lysine 36 methyltransferase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a transcriptional repressor. Here we show by five main lines of evidence that SET2 is involved in transcriptional elongation. First, most, if not all, subunits of the RNAP II holoenzyme co-purify with SET2. Second, all of the co-purifying RNAP II subunit, RPO21, was phosphorylated at serines 5 and 2 of the C-terminal domain (CTD) tail, indicating that the SET2 association is specific to either the elongating or SSN3 repressed forms (or both) of RNAP II. Third, the association of SET2 with CTD phosphorylated RPO21 remained in the absence of ssn3. Fourth, in the absence of ssn3, mRNA production from gal1 required SET2. Fifth, SET2 was detected on gal1 by in vivo crosslinking after, but not before, the induction of transcription. Similarly, SET2 physically associated with the transcribed region of pdr5 but was not detected on gal1 or pdr5 promoter regions. Since SET2 is also a histone methyltransferase, these results suggest a role for histone 3 lysine 36 methylation in transcriptional elongation.

Sebastian Schuck✳︎, Masanori Honsho✳︎, Kim Ekroos, Andrej Shevchenko, Kai Simons
Resistance of cell membranes to different detergents.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A., 100(10) 5795-5800 (2003)
Partial resistance of cell membranes to solubilization with mild detergents and the analysis of isolated detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) have been used operationally to define membrane domains. Given the multitude of detergents used for this purpose, we sought to investigate whether extraction with different detergents might reflect the same underlying principle of domain formation. We therefore compared the protein and lipid content of DRMs prepared with a variety of detergents from two cell lines. We found that the detergents differ considerably in their ability to selectively solubilize membrane proteins and to enrich sphingolipids and cholesterol over glycerophospholipids as well as saturated over unsaturated phosphatidylcholine. In addition, we observed cell type-dependent variations of the molecular characteristics of DRMs and the effectiveness of particular detergents. These results make it unlikely that different detergents reflect the same aspects of membrane organization and underscore both the structural complexity of cell membranes and the need for more sophisticated analytical tools to understand their architecture.

Shamil Sunyaev, Adam J. Liska, Alexander Golod, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko
MultiTag: multiple error-tolerant sequence tag search for the sequence-similarity identification of proteins by mass spectrometry.
Anal Chem, 75(6) 1307-1315 (2003)
The characterization of proteomes by mass spectrometry is largely limited to organisms with sequenced genomes. To identify proteins from organisms with unsequenced genomes, database sequences from related species must be employed for sequence-similarity protein identifications. Peptide sequence tags (Mann, 1994) have been used successfully for the identification of proteins in sequence databases using partially interpreted tandem mass spectra of tryptic peptides. We have extended the ability of sequence tag searching to the identification of proteins whose sequences are yet unknown but are homologous to known database entries. The MultiTag method presented here assigns statistical significance to matches of multiple error-tolerant sequence tags to a database entry and ranks alignments by their significance. The MultiTag approach has the distinct advantage over other sequence-similarity approaches of being able to perform sequence-similarity identifications using only very short (2-4) amino acid residue stretches of peptide sequences, rather than complete peptide sequences deduced by de novo interpretation of tandem mass spectra. This feature facilitates the identification of low abundance proteins, since noisy and low-intensity tandem mass spectra can be utilized.

Assen Roguev✳︎, Daniel Schaft✳︎, Anna Shevchenko, Rein Aasland, Andrej Shevchenko, A. Francis Stewart
High conservation of the Set1/Rad6 axis of histone 3 lysine 4 methylation in budding and fission yeasts.
J Biol Chem, 278(10) 8487-8493 (2003)
Histone 3 lysine 4 (H3 Lys(4)) methylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by the Set1 complex (Set1C) and is dependent upon ubiquitinylation of H2B by Rad6. Mutually exclusive methylation of H3 at Lys(4) or Lys(9) is central to chromatin regulation; however, S. cerevisiae lacks Lys(9) methylation. Furthermore, a different H3 Lys(4) methylase, Set 7/9, has been identified in mammals, thereby questioning the relevance of the S. cerevisiae findings for eukaryotes in general. We report that the majority of Lys(4) methylation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, like in S. cerevisiae, is mediated by Set1C and is Rad6-dependent. S. pombe Set1C mediates H3 Lys(4) methylation in vitro and contains the same eight subunits found in S. cerevisiae, including the homologue of the Drosophila trithorax Group protein, Ash2. Three additional features of S. pombe Set1C each involve PHD fingers. Notably, the Spp1 subunit is dispensable for H3 Lys(4) methylation in budding yeast but required in fission yeast, and Sp_Set1C has a novel proteomic hyperlink to a new complex that includes the homologue of another trithorax Group protein, Lid (little imaginal discs). Thus, we infer that Set1C is highly conserved in eukaryotes but observe that its links to the proteome are not.

Jan Havlis, Henrik Thomas, Marek Sebela, Andrej Shevchenko
Fast-response proteomics by accelerated in-gel digestion of proteins.
Anal Chem, 75(6) 1300-1306 (2003)
Kinetics of in-gel digestion of proteins by modified and native trypsins was studied by MALDI TOF mass spectrometry using 18O-labeled peptides as internal standards. The effect of the temperature, enzyme concentration, digestion time, and surface area of gel pieces on the yield of digestion products was characterized. Based on the kinetic data, we developed a protocol that enabled the identification of gel-separated proteins with 30-min digestion time without compromising the peptide yield and the sensitivity compared to conventional protocols that typically rely upon overnight enzymatic cleavage. The accelerated digestion protocol was tested in identification of more than 120 proteins from budding and fission yeasts at the subpicomole level.

Anna Shevchenko, Shamil Sunyaev, Adam J. Liska, Peer Bork, Andrej Shevchenko
Nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry and sequence similarity searching for identification of proteins from organisms with unknown genomes.
Methods Mol Biol, 211 221-234 (2003)

Adam J. Liska, Andrej Shevchenko
Expanding the organismal scope of proteomics: cross-species protein identification by mass spectrometry and its implications.
Proteomics, 3(1) 19-28 (2003)
Due to the limited applicability of conventional protein identification methods to the proteomes of organisms with unsequenced genomes, researchers have developed approaches to identify proteins using mass spectrometry and sequence similarity database searches. Both the integration of mass spectrometry with bioinformatics and genomic sequencing drive the expanding organismal scope of proteomics.

Adam J. Liska, Andrej Shevchenko
Combining mass spectrometry with database interrogation strategies in proteomics
Trends Analyt Chem, 22(5) 291-298 (2003)
Protein identification by mass spectrometry (MS) and sequence-database searching was established in 1993;since then, the proteomics community has witnessed a proliferation of analytical strategies for protein identification. Analytical strategies comprise three components: MS platforms; spectra-database sequence correlation methods;an d, sequence databases. Multiple strategies are now applied simultaneously to increase sensitivity, throughput, and reliability of the characterization of proteomes. Now, by assessing the complexity of the interplay of MS, bioinformatics and sequence databases, we can begin to predict future approaches and challenges in the development of proteomics.

Alexandre Soulard, Terry Lechler, Vladislav Spiridonov, Andrej Shevchenko, Anna Shevchenko, Rong Li, Barbara Winsor
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bzz1p is implicated with type I myosins in actin patch polarization and is able to recruit actin-polymerizing machinery in vitro.
Mol Cell Biol, 22(22) 7889-7906 (2002)
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) homologue Las17p (also called Bee1p) is an important component of cortical actin patches. Las17p is part of a high-molecular-weight protein complex that regulates Arp2/3 complex-dependent actin polymerization at the cell cortex and that includes the type I myosins Myo3p and Myo5p and verprolin (Vrp1p). To identify other factors implicated with this complex in actin regulation, we isolated proteins that bind to Las17p by two-hybrid screening and affinity chromatography. Here, we report the characterization of Lsb7/Bzz1p (for Las seventeen binding protein 7), an Src homology 3 (SH3) domain protein that interacts directly with Las17p via a polyproline-SH3 interaction. Bzz1p coimmunoprecipitates in a complex with Las17p, Vrp1p, Myo3/5p, Bbc1p, Hsp70p, and actin. It colocalizes with cortical actin patches and with Las17p. This localization is dependent on Las17p, but not on F-actin. Bzz1p interacts physically and genetically with type I myosins. While deletion of BZZ1 shows no obvious phenotype, simultaneous deletion of the BZZ1, MYO3, and MYO5 genes is lethal. Overexpression of Bzz1p inhibits cell growth, and a bzz1Delta myo5Delta double mutant is unable to restore actin polarity after NaCl stress. Finally, Bzz1p in vitro is able to recruit a functional actin polymerization machinery through its SH3 domains. Its interactions with Las17p, Vrp1p, and the type I myosins are essential for this process. This suggests that Bzz1p could be implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization.

Josephine N Harada, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, David C. Pallas, Arnold J Berk
Analysis of the adenovirus E1B-55K-anchored proteome reveals its link to ubiquitination machinery.
J Virol, 76(18) 9194-9206 (2002)
During the early phase of infection, the E1B-55K protein of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) counters the E1A-induced stabilization of p53, whereas in the late phase, E1B-55K modulates the preferential nucleocytoplasmic transport and translation of the late viral mRNAs. The mechanism(s) by which E1B-55K performs these functions has not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, we have taken a proteomics-based approach to identify and characterize novel E1B-55K-associated proteins. A multiprotein E1B-55K-containing complex was immunopurified from Ad5-infected HeLa cells and found to contain E4-orf6, as well as several cellular factors previously implicated in the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated destruction of proteins, including Cullin-5, Rbx1/ROC1/Hrt1, and Elongins B and C. We further demonstrate that a complex containing these as well as other proteins is capable of directing the polyubiquitination of p53 in vitro. These ubiquitin ligase components were found in a high-molecular-mass complex of 800 to 900 kDa. We propose that these newly identified binding partners (Cullin-5, Elongins B and C, and Rbx1) complex with E1B-55K and E4-orf6 during Ad infection to form part of an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific protein substrates for degradation. We further suggest that E1B-55K functions as the principal substrate recognition component of this SCF-type ubiquitin ligase, whereas E4-orf6 may serve to nucleate the assembly of the complex. Lastly, we describe the identification and characterization of two novel E1B-55K interacting factors, importin-alpha 1 and pp32, that may also participate in the functions previously ascribed to E1B-55K and E4-orf6.

Jennitte L Stevens, Greg T Cantin, Gang Wang, Andrej Shevchenko, Anna Shevchenko, Arnold J Berk
Transcription control by E1A and MAP kinase pathway via Sur2 mediator subunit.
Science, 296(5568) 755-758 (2002)
Sur2 is a metazoan Mediator subunit that interacts with the adenovirus E1A protein and functions in a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway required for vulva development in Caenorhabditis elegans. We generated sur2-/- embryonic stem cells to analyze its function as a mammalian Mediator component. Our results show that Sur2 forms a subcomplex of the Mediator with two other subunits, TRAP/Med100 and 95. Knock-out of Sur2 prevents activation by E1A-CR3 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated ETS transcription factor Elk-1, but not by multiple other transcription factors. These results imply that specific activation domains stimulate transcription by binding to distinct Mediator subunits. Activation by E1A and Elk-1 requires recruitment of Mediator to a promoter by binding to its Sur2 subunit.

Kim Ekroos, Igor V. Chernushevich, Kai Simons, Andrej Shevchenko
Quantitative profiling of phospholipids by multiple precursor ion scanning on a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer.
Anal Chem, 74(5) 941-949 (2002)
A hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer featured with ion trapping capabilities was employed for quantitative profiling of total extracts of endogenous phospholipids. Simultaneous acquisition of precursor ion spectra of multiple fragment ions allowed detection of major classes of phospholipids in a single experiment. Relative changes in their concentration were monitored using a mixture of isotopically labeled endogenous lipids as a comprehensive internal standard. Precursor ion scanning spectra were acquired simultaneously for acyl anions of major fatty acids in negative ion mode and identified the fatty acid moieties and their relative position at the glycerol backbone in individual lipid species. Taken together, a combination of multiple precursor ion scans allowed quantitative monitoring of major perturbation in phospholipid composition and elucidating of molecular heterogeneity of individual lipid species.

Anna Shevchenko, Daniel Schaft, Assen Roguev, W W M Pim Pijnappel, A. Francis Stewart, Andrej Shevchenko
Deciphering protein complexes and protein interaction networks by tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry: analytical perspective.
Mol Cell Proteomics, 1(3) 204-212 (2002)
We employed a combination of tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry for deciphering protein complexes and the protein interaction network in budding yeast. 53 genes were epitope-tagged, and their interaction partners were isolated by two-step immunoaffinity chromatography from whole cell lysates. 38 baits pulled down a total of 220 interaction partners, which are members of 19 functionally distinct protein complexes. We identified four proteins shared between complexes of different functionality thus charting segments of a protein interaction network. Concordance with the results of genome-wide two-hybrid screening was poor (14% of identified interactors overlapped) suggesting that the two approaches may provide complementary views on physical interactions within the proteome.

Kim Ekroos, Andrej Shevchenko
Simple two-point calibration of hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight instruments using a synthetic lipid standard.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, 16(12) 1254-1255 (2002)
Simple two-point calibration of hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight instruments using a synthetic lipid standard.

Andrej Shevchenko, Igor V. Chernushevich, Anna Shevchenko, Matthias Wilm, Matthias Mann
"De novo" sequencing of peptides recovered from in-gel digested proteins by nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry.
Mol Biotechnol, 20(1) 107-118 (2002)
Proteins separated by one-dimensional or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis can be digested in-gel with trypsin and the recovered peptides can be sequenced de novo using triple quadrupole or hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight instruments equipped with a nanoelectrospray ion source. The peptide sequences determined provide useful information for identification of proteins by homology searching for cloning of the cognate genes by PCR based approaches.

Raymond J. Deshaies, Jae Hong Seol, W Hayes McDonald, Gregory Cope, Svetlana Lyapina, Andrej Shevchenko, Anna Shevchenko, Rati Verma, John R. Yates
Charting the protein complexome in yeast by mass spectrometry.
Mol Cell Proteomics, 1(1) 3-10 (2002)
It has become evident over the past few years that many complex cellular processes, including control of the cell cycle and ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, are carried out by sophisticated multisubunit protein machines that are dynamic in abundance, post-translational modification state, and composition. To understand better the nature of the macromolecular assemblages that carry out the cell cycle and ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, we have used mass spectrometry extensively over the past few years to characterize both the composition of various protein complexes and the modification states of their subunits. In this article we review some of our recent efforts, and describe a promising new approach for using mass spectrometry to dissect protein interaction networks.

Assen Roguev, Daniel Schaft, A Shevchenko, W W M Pim Pijnappel, Matthias Wilm, Rein Aasland, A F Stewart
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Set1 complex includes an Ash2 homologue and methylates histone 3 lysine 4.
EMBO J, 20(24) 7137-7148 (2001)
The SET domain proteins, SUV39 and G9a have recently been shown to be histone methyltransferases specific for lysines 9 and 27 (G9a only) of histone 3 (H3). The SET domains of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Set1 and Drosophila trithorax proteins are closely related to each other but distinct from SUV39 and G9a. We characterized the complex associated with Set1 and Set1C and found that it is comprised of eight members, one of which, Bre2, is homologous to the trithorax-group (trxG) protein, Ash2. Set1C requires Set1 for complex integrity and mutation of Set1 and Set1C components shortens telomeres. One Set1C member, Swd2/Cpf10 is also present in cleavage polyadenylation factor (CPF). Set1C methylates lysine 4 of H3, thus adding a new specificity and a new subclass of SET domain proteins known to methyltransferases. Since methylation of H3 lysine 4 is widespread in eukaryotes, we screened the databases and found other Set1 homologues. We propose that eukaryotic Set1Cs are H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases and are related to trxG action through association with Ash2 homologues.

Alexandra C. Moreno-Borchart, Katrin Strasser, Martin G. Finkbeiner, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, Michael Knop
Prospore membrane formation linked to the leading edge protein (LEP) coat assembly.
EMBO J, 20(24) 6946-6957 (2001)
In yeast, the differentiation process at the end of meiosis generates four daughter cells inside the boundaries of the mother cell. A meiosis-specific plaque (MP) at the spindle pole bodies (SPBs) serves as the starting site for the formation of the prospore membranes (PSMs) that are destined to encapsulate the post-meiotic nuclei. Here we report the identification of Ady3p and Ssp1p, which are functional components of the leading edge protein (LEP) coat, that covers the ring-shaped opening of the PSMs. Ssp1p is required for the assembly of the LEP coat, which consists of at least three proteins (Ssp1p, Ady3p and Don1p). The assembly of the LEP coat starts with the formation of cytosolic precursors, which then bind in an Ady3p-dependent manner to the SPBs. Subsequent processes at the SPBs leading to functional LEP coats require Ssp1p and the MP components. During growth of the PSMs, the LEP coat functions in formation of the cup-shaped membrane structure that is indispensable for the regulated cellularization of the cytoplasm around the post-meiotic nuclei.

W W M Pim Pijnappel, Daniel Schaft, Assen Roguev, A Shevchenko, H Tekotte, Matthias Wilm, Guillaume Rigaut, Bertrand Séraphin, Rein Aasland, A F Stewart
The S. cerevisiae SET3 complex includes two histone deacetylases, Hos2 and Hst1, and is a meiotic-specific repressor of the sporulation gene program.
Genes Dev, 15(22) 2991-3004 (2001)
Set3 is one of two proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that, like Drosophila Trithorax, contains both SET and PHD domains. We found that Set3 forms a single complex, Set3C, with Snt1, YIL112w, Sif2, Cpr1, and two putative histone deacetylases, Hos2 and NAD-dependent Hst1. Set3C includes NAD-dependent and independent deacetylase activities when assayed in vitro. Homology searches suggest that Set3C is the yeast analog of the mammalian HDAC3/SMRT complex. Set3C represses genes in early/middle of the yeast sporulation program, including the key meiotic regulators ime2 and ndt80. Whereas Hos2 is only found in Set3C, Hst1 is also present in a complex with Sum1, supporting previous characterizations of Hst1 and Sum1 as repressors of middle sporulation genes during vegetative growth. However, Hst1 is not required for meiotic repression by Set3C, thus implying that Set3C (-Hst1) and not Hst1-Sum1, is the meiotic-specific repressor of early/middle sporulation genes.

Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko
Evaluation of the efficiency of in-gel digestion of proteins by peptide isotopic labeling and MALDI mass spectrometry.
Anal Biochem, 296(2) 279-283 (2001)
NOTES & TIPS Evaluation of the Efficiency of In-Gel Digestion of Proteins by Peptide Isotopic Labeling and MALDI Mass Spectrometry Anna Shevchenko and Andrej Shevchenko 1 MPI of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, 01307 Dresden, Germany; and European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), 69012 Heidelberg, Germany Received December 21, 2000; published online August 15, 2001 Visualization of proteins separated by one-dimensional or two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, in-gel digestion of excised protein bands (spots), followed by identification of proteins by mass spectrometry underpin many proteome characterization strategies (reviewed in (1 4)). A multitude of protocols for staining of polyacrylamide gels (reviewed in (5)) and of enzymatic in-gel digestion of proteins (reviewed in (1, 6)) at the low picomole femtomole level has been reported. A combination of protein visualization and in-gel digestion methods designed for proteomic application is usually evaluated according to two major criteria. First, the lowest limit of reliable visualization of protein spot (band) is determined (5, 7, 8). Second, the sequence coverage of MALDI peptide mass fingerprints acquired from in-gel digests of the visualized protein spots and the sensitivity of mass spectrometric detection are evaluated (8 10). However, the latter criteria are particularly difficult to apply. The intensity of peptide signals detected in complex mixtures by MALDI MS strongly depends on the employed sample handling and probe preparation routines. Furthermore, unavoidable micro-heterogeneity of MALDI probes and inevitable presence of the residual amount of dyes, salts, and detergents result in significant shot-to-shot variation of peptide and matrix signals, requires consistent tuning of the laser fluence (11) and, consequently, does not allow quantitative comparison of spectra acquired in the separate experiments. Without direct measurement of the yield of peptide digestion products it is difficult to provide consistent evaluation of the efficiency of in-gel digestion protocols. Sequencing of proteins from silver-stained gels may serve as an example. Successful identification of silver stained proteins and high sequence coverage of MALDI peptide mass maps at the low femtomole level was reported (12), and almost identical peptide mass fingerprints were observed in the digests of silver and Coomassie stained protein bands (13). However, other authors reported substantially lower sequence coverage of peptide mass maps acquired from the digests of silver-stained proteins (8, 10, 14) that, however, could be improved by destaining of the bands prior to in-gel trypsinolysis (15, 16). We therefore set out to develop a method for direct and quantitative evaluation of the efficiency of in-gel cleavage of proteins in order to outline a rational procedure for comparison of in-gel digestion efficiency. The yield of digestion products was determined by MALDI MS using 18 O-isotopically labeled peptides as the internal standards (17, 18). We further examined whether conventional methods of staining of polyacrylamide gels (Coomassie staining, silver staining, and zinc-imidazole staining) might affect the in-gel digestion efficiency. Materials and Methods Materials and reagents. All major chemicals were purchased from Sigma (Sigma Chemicals, St. Louis, MO) and were of analytical grade. H 2 18 O (Cambridge Isotopic Laboratories, MA) was purified by microdistillation as described (19). Gel electrophoresis and visualization of protein bands. The aliquots containing 1 pmol of bovine serum albumin (Sigma Chemicals) in Laemmli buffer were loaded onto separate lanes of a one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel. Immediately after electrophoresis, the gel was cut. Separate parts of the gel slab each containing three lanes with the BSA standards were stained by various methods. Coomassie staining and silver staining were performed as described (13). Zinc imidazole staining (negative staining) was performed according to (20). In a separate experiment the gel was stained with silver. Four BSA bands were excised from the gel and then destained with potassium ferricyanide and sodium thiosulfate as described (15). Stained and Preliminary results were reported at the 48th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Long Beach, CA, 2000. 1 Corresponding author: E-mail: shevchenko@mpi-cbg.de. Analytical Biochemistry 296, 279 283 (2001) 279 doi:10.1006/abio.2001.5321 0003-2697/01 $35.00 Copyright 2001 by Academic Press All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. All articles available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on destained bands were further processed in parallel using conventional recipe. In-gel digestion, preparation of sample probes and MALDI analysis. To prepare a standard mixture of 18 O-labeled peptides, a solution of 0.14 pmol/ L BSA in 25 mM ammonium bicarbonate buffer in H 2 18 O was digested overnight at 37 C; enzyme:substrate ratio 1:10 (w/w). Protein bands (three for each method of staining) were in parallel in-gel digested with trypsin (unmodified, sequencing grade, Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Germany) as described (13, 19). Gel pieces were extracted with 5% formic acid and acetonitrile and the extracts were dried down in a vacuum concentrator. Tryptic peptides were redissolved in 10 L of 10% formic acid. A 2- L aliquot was withdrawn and mixed with 1 L of an 18 O-labeled mixture of peptides (internal standard) prepared as described above. Four 0.5- L aliquots of every mixed sample were analyzed in parallel by MALDI MS as described in (13, 21) on a modified REFLEX III mass spectrometer (Bruker Daltonics, Germany). The determined relative concentrations of peptides were averaged. The relative standard deviation of the concentrations in all series of measurements was better than 20%. Results and Discussion Quantification of peptides in in-gel tryptic digests. Upon digesting of a protein in the buffer, which contains H 2 18 O, tryptic peptides incorporate one or two 18 O-atoms into their C-terminal carboxyl groups (22). Comparison of the peptide mass maps acquired from the digests of various standard proteins revealed that peptides, which contain arginine residue at their Cterminus incorporate two 18 O atoms (2 18 O peptides) mostly, whereas peptides having C-terminal lysine residue incorporate one 18 O atom (1 18 O peptides) (Fig. 1). Incubation of 2 18 O peptides in 10% formic acid in H 2 16 O at room temperature resulted in a mixture of unlabeled, 1 18 O and 2 18 O forms. However, this process was slow and required several days before substantial alteration of the isotopic profile was detected (data not shown). Isotopically labeled peptides produced by digesting of a protein in H 2 18 O could be employed as internal standards for quantitative measurements by MALDI MS. A standard mixture of 18 O-labeled peptides was prepared by digesting BSA with trypsin in solution in the buffer containing H 2 18 O. Very similar profiles of tryptic peptides were detected in MALDI peptide FIG. 1. A part of the spectrum of the tryptic digest of BSA in the buffer containing H 2 18 O. Peaks in the spectrum are designated with corresponding peptide sequences and m/z calculated for the unlabeled monoisotopic ions. Blowouts demonstrate isotopic profiles typical for the peptide ions having arginine or lysine residues at their C-termini. The positions of the corresponding monoisotopic unlabeled ions are designated with unfilled arrows. 280 NOTES & TIPS maps of in-solution digests and of in-gel digests, although the relative intensity of peptide peaks was altered. Equal volume of the mixture of 18 O-labeled peptides was spiked into the aliquots withdrawn from the experimental in-gel digests that were performed in H 2 16 O and the samples were analyzed by MALDI MS. Relative concentration of digestion products was calculated as a ratio of the intensity of the monoisotopic peak of the unlabeled peptide and the intensity of the monoisotopic peak of the corresponding 2 18 O peptide standard (Fig. 2). Linearity of the calibration curve was tested by analyzing the series of samples obtained by successive diluting of the aliquot withdrawn from the in-gel digest of 1 pmol of BSA. The relative concentrations calculated for various peptides were found linear over 1:5 dilution range and were affected by chemical noise at larger dilution ratios (data not shown). The effect of gel staining on the recovery of tryptic peptides. This was examined by analyzing in-gel digests of the bands containing 1 pmol of BSA, which were stained with Coomassie, silver, and zinc-imidazole. A similar profile of tryptic peptides was detected TABLE 1 Relative Concentration of Tryptic Peptides of BSA in In-Gel Digests of Bands Stained by Various Methods Staining method Relative concentration a (%) m/z 927.49 m/z 1439.81 m/z 1479.80 m/z 1567.74 m/z 1639.94 Silver, with reduction and alkylation 100 100 100 100 100 Coomassie 105 136 74 95 121 Zn/Imidazole 117 61 74 79 100 a Relative concentrations of peptides were normalized to the concentrations in the digests of silver-stained bands. FIG. 2. Calculation of the relative concentration of peptides. A blowout of the isotopic cluster of the peptide peak with m/z 1439.93. The monoisotopic peak of the unlabeled peptide is designated with a filled arrow. The peak of the isotopicaly labeled peptide, which incorporated two 18 O atoms (2 18 O) was used as an internal standard. The relative concentration of the unlabeled peptide (R c ) was calculated as R c I p /I st , where I p stands for the intensity of the peptide peak and I st stands for the intensity of the peak of the standard. 281 NOTES & TIPS in each of those samples (data not shown) and relative concentrations determined for five most intense peptide ions were compared. We observed slight variation of the relative concentration of individual peptides. However, no one method of staining provided significantly better recovery of peptides compared to other methods in the test (Table 1). We further tested whether the recovery of peptides from silver stained gels could be improved by destaining of protein bands prior to in-gel digestion (15). To this end we compared the relative concentrations of peptides in the in-gel digests of the destained bands and of the bands treated according to the conventional protocol. We observed no significant increase in the number of detected peptide peaks as well as in the yield of peptides if destaining of bands was applied (Table 2). Similar conclusion was reached by Moertz et al. (12) on the basis of MALDI analysis of a large number of automatically processed samples. Reduction and alkylation steps did not influence the recovery of peptides, which do not contain cysteine residues and therefore for the purpose of protein identification those steps could, in principle, be omitted (23). Notably cysteine-containing peptides were missing if reduction and alkylation steps were skipped (Fig. 3). We therefore concluded that at the level of 1 pmol of protein starting material the method of protein visualization FIG. 3. Comparison of the peptide maps of the silver stained bands processed using destaining, reduction, and alkylation (the upper spectrum) and using only destaining (the lower spectrum). Peaks are designated with corresponding m/z; peptide sequences are presented in Fig. 1. Three intense peptide peaks (designated with unfilled arrows) having matching cysteine-containig peptides from BSA were additionally detected after reduction and alkylation. Corresponding peptide sequences are: m/z 1419.66 SLHTLFGDELCK; m/z 1539.79 LCVLHEKTPVSEK; m/z 1880.91 RPCFSALTPDETYVPK. C stands for cysteine-S-acetamide residue. TABLE 2 Relative Concentration of Peptides Recovered from Silver-Stained Gels Sample preparation method Relative concentration a (%) m/z 927.49 m/z 1439.81 m/z 1479.80 m/z 1567.74 m/z 1639.94 With destaining, reduction and alkylation 100 100 100 100 100 With destaining only 95 110 93 97 98 With reduction and alkylation 115 104 102 83 94 Untreated b 5 12 14 6 19 a Relative concentrations of peptides were normalized to the concentrations in the digests of destained, reduced and alkylated bands. b Predigestion washing, destaining, reduction and alkylation were skipped. 282 NOTES & TIPS does not have any noticeable impact on the recovery of tryptic peptides. We also observed that relative concentration of all peptides in the digests of silver-stained bands, which were directly treated with trypsin (i.e. washing steps as well as destaining, reduction and alkylation were omitted), was dramatically lower. Nevertheless, the number of detected peptide was always sufficient for unambiguous identification of BSA upon searching a database. We therefore speculate that the sequence coverage of MALDI peptide maps alone does not constitute an adequate measure of the digestion efficiency and should be complemented by direct quantification of peptide products. Thus we have demonstrated that application of isotopically labeled peptide standards and MALDI MS enabled direct and quantitative evaluation of the efficiency of in-gel digestion. The method paves the way for further optimization of sample processing routines, thus improving sensitivity and throughput of the characterization of proteomes by mass spectrometry. Acknowledgments. The authors are grateful for members of Protein and Peptide Group for experimental support and useful discussions. REFERENCES 1. Lahm, H. W., and Langen, H. (2000) Electrophoresis 21, 2105 2114. 2. Pandey, A., and Mann, M. (2000) Nature 405, 837 846. 3. Andersen, J. S., and Mann, M. (2000) FEBS Lett. 480, 25 31. 4. Anderson, N. L., Matheson, A. D., and Steiner, S. (2000) Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 11, 408 412. 5. Rabilloud, T. (2000) Anal Chem. 72, 48A 55A. 6. Patterson, S. D., and Aebersold, R. (1995) Electrophoresis 16, 791 814. 7. Rabilloud, T. (1990) Electrophoresis 11, 785 794. 8. Lopez, M. F., Berggren, K., Chernokalskaya, E., Lazarev, A., Robinson, M., and Patton, W. F. (2000) Electrophoresis 21, 3673 3683. 9. Yan, J. X., Wait, R., Berkelman, T., Harry, R. A., Westbrook, J. A., Wheeler, C. H., and Dunn, M. J. (2000) Electrophoresis 21, 3666 3672. 10. Lauber, W. M., Carrol, J. A., Dunfield, D. R., Kiesel, J. R., Radabaugh, M. R., and Malone, J. P. (2001) Electrophoresis 22, 906 918. 11. Jensen, O. N., Mortensen, P., Vorm, O., and Mann, M. (1997) Anal. Chem. 69, 1706 1714. 12. Moertz, E., Krogh, T. N., Vorum, H., and Go rg, A. (2000) Proceedings, 48th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Long Beach CA, pp. 1115 1116. 13. Shevchenko, A., Wilm, M., Vorm, O., and Mann, M. (1996) Anal. Chem. 68, 850 858. 14. Scheler, C., Lamer, S., Pan, Z., Li, X. P., Salnikow, J., and Jungblut, P. (1998) Electrophoresis 19, 918 27. 15. Gharahdaghi, F., Weinberg, C. R., Meagher, D. A., Imai, B. S., and Mische, S. M. (1999) Electrophoresis 20, 601 605. 16. Sumner, L. W., White, S., Wolf-Sumner, B., and Asirvatham, V. S. (2001) Abstracts 49th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Chicago IL. 17. Shevchenko, A., Wilm, M., and Shevchenko, A. (2000) Proceedings, 48th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Long Beach CA, pp. 859 860. 18. Mirgorodskaya, O. A., Kozmin, Y. P., Titov, M. I., Korner, R., Sonksen, C. P., and Roepstorff, P. (2000) Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 14, 1226 1232. 19. Shevchenko, A., Chernushevich, I., Wilm, M., and Mann, M. (2000) in Protein in Peptide Analysis (Chapman, J. R., Ed.), Vol. 146, pp. 1 16, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. 20. Fernandez-Patron, C., Calero, M., Collazo, P. R., Garcia, J. R., Madrazo, J., Musacchio, A., Soriano, F., Estrada, R., Frank, R., and Castellanos-Serra, L. R. (1995) Anal. Biochem. 224, 203 211. 21. Jensen, O. N., Podtelejnikov, A., and Mann, M. (1996) Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 10, 1371 1378. 22. Schno lzer, M., Jedrzejewski, P., and Lehmann, W. D. (1996) Electrophoresis 17, 945 953. 23. Borchers, C., Peter, J. F., Hall, M. C., Kunkel, T. A., and Tomer, K. B. (2000) Anal. Chem. 72, 1163 1168. Reutilization of Immunoblots after Chemiluminescent Detection Scott H. Kaufmann Division of Oncology Research, Mayo Clinic, and Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Mayo Graduate School, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 Received March 9, 2001; published online August 16, 2001 Immunoblotting is widely utilized to evaluate the presence of antigens of interest in various biological samples, monitor antigen purification, assess epitope retention after antigen degradation, or assay for the presence of antibodies of a particular specificity in biological fluids [reviewed in Refs. (1 4)]. Under certain circumstances, e.g., if a blot suggests an unexpected difference in antigen expression between two samples or the antigens being analyzed are derived from a precious source, it can be important to sequentially probe the same blot for the presence of multiple antigens. The present study demonstrates that treatment with sodium azide after detection of bound HRP 1 -coupled secondary antibodies results in inhibition of the reporter group, thereby facilitating sequential probing of blots if reagents raised in multiple species are available. A number of approaches have been previously proposed for the detection of multiple antigens on immu-1 Abbreviations used: HRP, horseradish peroxidase; PBS, calciumand magnesium-free phosphate-buffered saline. 283 NOTES & TIPS Analytical Biochemistry 296, 283 286 (2001) doi:10.1006/abio.2001.5313 0003-2697/01 $35.00 Copyright 2001 by Academic Press All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

Gregory Cope, Svetlana Lyapina, Anna Shevchenko, Giovanna Serino, Tomohiko Tsuge, Chunshui Zhou, Dieter A. Wolf, Ning Wei, Andrej Shevchenko, Raymond J. Deshaies
Promotion of NEDD-CUL1 conjugate cleavage by COP9 signalosome.
Science, 292(5520) 1382-1385 (2001)
SCF ubiquitin ligases control various processes by marking regulatory proteins for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. To illuminate how SCF complexes are regulated, we sought proteins that interact with the human SCF component CUL1. The COP9 signalosome (CSN), a suppressor of plant photomorphogenesis, associated with multiple cullins and promoted cleavage of the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe CUL1 in vivo and in vitro. Multiple NEDD8-modified proteins uniquely accumulated in CSN-deficient S. pombe cells. We propose that the broad spectrum of activities previously attributed to CSN subunits--including repression of photomorphogenesis, activation of JUN, and activation of p27 nuclear export--underscores the importance of dynamic cycles of NEDD8 attachment and removal in biological regulation.

Andrej Shevchenko, Shamil Sunyaev, Alexander Loboda, Anna Shevchenko, Peer Bork, Werner Ens, Kenneth G. Standing
Charting the proteomes of organisms with unsequenced genomes by MALDI-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and BLAST homology searching.
Anal Chem, 73(9) 1917-1926 (2001)
MALDI-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to identify proteins from organisms whose genomes are still unknown. The identification was carried out by successively searching a sequence database-first with a peptide mass fingerprint, then with a packet of noninterpreted MS/MS spectra, and finally with peptide sequences obtained by automated interpretation of the MS/MS spectra. A "MS BLAST" homology searching protocol was developed to overcome specific limitations imposed by mass spectrometric data, such as the limited accuracy of de novo sequence predictions. This approach was tested in a small-scale proteomic project involving the identification of 15 bands of gel-separated proteins from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, whose genome has not yet been sequenced and which is only distantly related to other fungi.

Jae Hong Seol, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, Raymond J. Deshaies
Skp1 forms multiple protein complexes, including RAVE, a regulator of V-ATPase assembly.
Nat Cell Biol, 3(4) 384-391 (2001)
SCF ubiquitin ligases are composed of Skp1, Cdc53, Hrt1 and one member of a large family of substrate receptors known as F-box proteins (FBPs). Here we report the identification, using sequential rounds of epitope tagging, affinity purification and mass spectrometry, of 16 Skp1 and Cdc53-associated proteins in budding yeast, including all components of SCF, 9 FBPs, Yjr033 (Rav1) and Ydr202 (Rav2). Rav1, Rav2 and Skp1 form a complex that we have named 'regulator of the (H+)-ATPase of the vacuolar and endosomal membranes' (RAVE), which associates with the V1 domain of the vacuolar membrane (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). V-ATPases are conserved throughout eukaryotes, and have been implicated in tumour metastasis and multidrug resistance, and here we show that RAVE promotes glucose-triggered assembly of the V-ATPase holoenzyme. Previous systematic genome-wide two-hybrid screens yielded 17 proteins that interact with Skp1 and Cdc53, only 3 of which overlap with those reported here. Thus, our results provide a distinct view of the interactions that link proteins into a comprehensive cellular network.

Ingo Stuckmann, Anja Weigmann, Andrej Shevchenko, Matthias Mann, Wieland B. Huttner
Ephrin B1 is expressed on neuroepithelial cells in correlation with neocortical neurogenesis.
J Neurosci, 21(8) 2726-2737 (2001)
To identify molecules involved in neurogenesis, we have raised monoclonal antibodies against embryonic day 12.5 mouse telencephalon. One antibody, monoclonal antibody 25H11, stains predominantly the ventricular zone of the anterior and lateral telencephalon. Purification of the 25H11 antigen, a 47 kDa integral membrane protein, from approximately 2500 mouse telencephali reveals its identity with ephrin B1. Ephrin B1 appears at the onset of neocortical neurogenesis, being first expressed in neuron-generating neuroepithelial cells and rapidly thereafter in virtually all neuroepithelial cells. Expression of ephrin B1 persists through the period of neocortical neurogenesis and is downregulated thereafter. Ephrin B1 is present on the ventricular as well as basolateral plasma membrane of neuroepithelial cells and exhibits an ventricular-high to pial-low gradient across the ventricular zone. Expression of ephrin B1 is also detected on radial glial cells, extending all the way to their pial endfeet, and on neurons in the mantle/intermediate zone but not in the cortical plate. Our results suggest that ephrin B1, presumably via ephrin-Eph receptor signaling, has a role in neurogenesis. Given the ventricular-to-pial gradient of ephrin B1 on the neuroepithelial cell surface and its known role in cell migration in other systems mediated by its repulsive properties, we propose that ephrin B1 may be involved in the migration of newborn neurons out from the ventricular zone toward the neocortex.

Anna Shevchenko, Alexander Loboda, Werner Ens, Burkhart Schraven, Kenneth G. Standing, Andrej Shevchenko
Archived polyacrylamide gels as a resource for proteome characterization by mass spectrometry.
Electrophoresis, 22(6) 1194-1203 (2001)
Mass spectrometry was applied to identify protein spots excised from an archived two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel that had been dried and stored for eight years at room temperature. All proteins were successfully identified. Detailed characterization of protein digests by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) peptide mapping, nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry and MALDI-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed no evidence of protein degradation or modifications that could hamper identification of proteins in a sequence database. The experiment with a model protein demonstrated that the pattern of tryptic peptides and the yield of individual peptides were not noticeably changed in the in-gel digest of the archived protein spot compared to the digest of the spot excised from a fresh gel. Thus, the characterization of "archived proteomes" has the potential to advance proteomic research without repeating "wet" biochemistry experiments, that had been perfected in the laboratory years ago.

Carsten Janke, Jennifer Ortiz, Johannes Lechner, Anna Shevchenko, Andrej Shevchenko, Maria M. Magiera, C Schramm, E Schiebel
The budding yeast proteins Spc24p and Spc25p interact with Ndc80p and Nuf2p at the kinetochore and are important for kinetochore clustering and checkpoint control.
EMBO J, 20(4) 777-791 (2001)
Here, we show that the budding yeast proteins Ndc80p, Nuf2p, Spc24p and Spc25p interact at the kinetochore. Consistently, Ndc80p, Nuf2p, Spc24p and Spc25p associate with centromere DNA in chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, and SPC24 interacts genetically with MCM21 encoding a kinetochore component. Moreover, although conditional lethal spc24-2 and spc25-7 cells form a mitotic spindle, the kinetochores remain in the mother cell body and fail to segregate the chromosomes. Despite this defect in chromosome segregation, spc24-2 and spc25-7 cells do not arrest in metaphase in response to checkpoint control. Furthermore, spc24-2 cells showed a mitotic checkpoint defect when microtubules were depolymerized with nocodazole, indicating that Spc24p has a function in checkpoint control. Since Ndc80p, Nuf2p and Spc24p are conserved proteins, it is likely that similar complexes are part of the kinetochore in other organisms.